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Microsoft® Windows® 2000 TCP/IP Protocols and Services Technical Reference
Author Thomas Lee and Joseph Davies
Pages 576
Disk 1 Companion CD(s)
Level Int/Adv
Published 01/05/2000
ISBN 9780735605565
ISBN-10 0-7356-0556-4
Price(USD) $49.99
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Index


A
AALs. See ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs)
Access Control field, IEEE 802.5, 17
ACKs (acknowledgements)
    cumulative acknowledgments, 282–283
    delayed acknowledgements, 282
    establishing TCP connections and, 263–264
    Karn’s algorithm and, 315
    RTO and, 301–302
    selective acknowledgments, 283–284
Active Directory (AD)
    authentication in, 479
    IPP operation in, 424
    IPSec policies and, 483–484
    zone transfer and, 372
Active Directory-integrated zones
    definition of, 358
    RRs and, 375
adapter status
    definition of, 398
    determining, 403
address allocation, CIDR, 129–130
    address space and, 130
    class C network IDs and, 129–130
address assignment, VPNs, 498–499
address classes
    host IDs and, 112
    multicast address classes, 111
    network IDs and, 112
    unicast address classes, 110–111
address conflict exchange, ARP, 68–69
Address fields
    Frame Relay, 44
    PPP, 33
addressing. See also IP addressing; IPv6 addressing
    anycast addresses, 212
    group addresses, 192
    LAN encapsulations and, 3
    Link Layer addresses, 212
    MAC addresses, 14–15, 21–22, 137–138
    multicast addresses, 212
    unicast addresses, 212
    WAN encapsulations and, 29
address ranges
    binary subnetting and, 121–122
    decimal subnetting and, 124
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 57–72
    cache and, 58–60
    detecting duplicate addresses with, 67–69
    Frame Padding field and, 66
    frame structure of, 62–66
    Inverse ARP and, 69–70
    LAN technologies for ARP messages. See also local area networks (LANs)
    overview of, 57–58
    proxy ARP and, 70–72
    registry settings for, 60–61
    requests/replies and, 64–66
    updating MAC addresses, 58–60
    WAN technologies for ARP messages. See wide area networks (WANs)
address space, CIDR, 130
Aggregatable Global unicast addresses, 214–215
AH. See Authentication Header (AH)
aliases, resolving, 369–370
all-subnets-directed broadcast, 135
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 23
analog phone lines
    PPP and, 35
    WANs and, 29
ANSI (American National Standards Institute), 23
anti-replay service, IPSec, 479
anycast addresses, 212, 216
API (Application Programming Interface), 479–480
APIPA. See Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
Application Layer
    periodic advertisement and, 228
    reliability and, 228
    sending/receiving messages to/from DHCP servers, 324–325
    transporting data with TCP and UDP, 227, 235
Application Layer protocols
    connecting to remote sites and users. See Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
    file sharing services. See Common Internet File System (CIFS)
    file transfer services. See File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    IP configuration services. See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    mail services. See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    naming services. See Domain Name Service (DNS); Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
    printer sharing services. See Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
    security services. See IP Security (IPSec)
    Web publishing services. See HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Application Programming Interface (API), 479–480
ArpAlwaysSourceRoute, ARP registry settings, 61
ARPANET, 351, 477
ArpCacheLife, ARP registry settings, 59
ArpCacheMinReferencedLife, ARP registry settings, 59–60
ArpRetryCount, ARP registry settings, 67
ArpTRSingleRoute, ARP registry settings, 61
ArpUseEtherSNAP, ARP registry settings, 13–14, 60–61
ASCII data type, FTP, 465
asynchoronous links, PPP, 35
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), 46–55. See also ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs)
    architecture of, 49–51
    ATM cell and, 47–49
    overview of, 46–47
    WANs and, 29
ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs), 51–55
    AAL5 fields and, 52
    AAL5 segmentation flags and, 48
    convergence sublayer and, 51
    multiprotocol encapsulation with AAL5, 54–55
    SAR sublayer and, 51
    sending IP datagrams over ATM with AAL5, 53–54
authentication
    CIFS and, 436
    ESP and, 487
    IPSec and, 477–479
    PPP and, 496
    VPNs and, 497–498
Authentication Header (AH), 485–487
    computing authentication data and, 487
    IPv6 and, 223
    layout of, 486
    overview of, 485
    packet transform and, 486–487
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), 326

B
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN), 46
binary method, subnetting, 117, 118–122
binary numbers, converting, 108
bit-level integrity
    LAN encapsulations and, 3
    WAN encapsulations and, 29–30
bit stuffing, PPP, 36
block mode, FTP, 466
B-node (broadcast node)
    end-node types and, 390
    Microsoft-modified, 391
    name registration request and, 398
    WINS proxy and, 393
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
    BOOTP forwarding and, 325
    BOOTP Support and, 327–328
    DHCP and, 322, 350
bridging. See translational bridging
broadcast addressing. See IP broadcast addressing
broadcast links, IP routing, 140–141
broadcast node. See B-node (broadcast node)

C
cacheable, HTTP, 442
caching
    HTTP, 442, 460–461
    negative caching and, 361
    resolver cache and, 360
Callback Control Protocol (CBCP), 496
canonical names (CNAME)
    definition of, 355–356
    RRs and, 355, 376
CBCP (Callback Control Protocol), 496
CCP (Compression Control Protocol), 496
Cell Loss Priority (CLP), ATM cells, 49
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), 497–498
character stuffing
    PPP and, 35
    SLIP and, 30–31
chunked transfer codings, HTTP, 459
CIDR. See Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
CIFS. See Common Internet File System (CIFS)
Class addresses
    Class A, 110, 119
    Class B, 111, 120
    Class C, 111, 120, 129–130
    Class D, 111
    Class E, 111
    subnetting, 119–120
class-based routing, 155–156
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), 128–131
    address allocation and, 129–130
    routing and, 131
classless routing, 156
clients
    DHCP, 322
    DNS, 367
    HTTP, 442
CLP (Cell Loss Priority), ATM cells, 49
CNAME. See canonical names (CNAME)
codings, HTTP
    chunked transfer codings, 459
    content codings, 458
    transfer codings, 459
Command/Response (C/R) field, Frame Relay, 46
Common Internet File System (CIFS), 434–439
    connection management with, 437
    distributed file system operations of, 438
    file and printer access with, 437
    name resolution and connection establishment in, 434–436
    opportunistic locks of, 438–439
    overview of, 423, 434
    read-ahead and write-behind features of, 438
    session disconnection in, 436–437
compression
    CCP and, 496
    FTP and, 466
    MPPC and, 497
    VPNs and, 499
Compression Control Protocol (CCP), 496
confidentiality
    ESP, 487
    IPSec, 479
congestion collapse, 302–303
Connection Sharing, NAT, 396
content codings, HTTP, 458
content negotiation, HTTP
    agent-driven, 459–460
    server-driven, 460
    transparent, 460
control connection, FTP
    definition of, 461
    FTP session connections and, 462
Control field
    Frame Relay, 44
    IEEE 802.2, 10–11
    PPP, 33
Convergence sublayer (CS), AAL, 51
Copy field, IP options, 96
Cost field, IP header, 82
C/R field, Frame Relay, 46
cumulative acknowledgment scheme, 282–283
cwind variable, 317

D
data. See also Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) data flow
    frame formats for transmission of, 4
    FTP connections for, 461, 462
    FTP structures for, 464
    FTP transfer of, 464
    UDP and TCP data transportation of, 227, 235
data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE), X.25, 39
datagrams. See IP datagrams
Data Link Layer, OSI
    LAN services of, 3
    WAN services of, 29–30
    X.25 and, 40
data terminal equipment (DTE), X.25, 39
Data Transfer Process (DTP), 461–462
DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment), X.25, 39
DE (Discard Eligibility), Frame Relay, 46
decimal method, subnetting, 117, 122–124
decimal numbers, converting, 109
DefaultTOS, 82
DefaultTTL, 84
defending node, ARP, 68
delayed acknowledgements, 282
Delay field, IP header, 81
delimitation
    LAN encapsulations and, 3
    SLIP and, 30–31
    WAN encapsulations and, 29
denial-of-service attack. See SYN attacks
Destination Address field
    Ethernet II, 5
    FDDI, 24
    IEEE 802.3, 10
    IEEE 802.5, 17–18
    IP, 86–87
Destination field, IP routing table, 143
destination host receiving process, 152–153
Destination Options header, IPv6, 221
Destination Service Access Point (DSAP), 10
DFS (Distributed File System), 434
DHCP. See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
DHCPACK, DHCP messages, 325, 340–341
DHCPDECLINE, DHCP messages, 325, 341–343
DHCPDISCOVER, DHCP messages, 324, 334–336
DHCPINFORM, DHCP messages, 325, 346–347
DHCPNAK, DHCP messages, 325, 343–345
DHCPOFFER, DHCP messages, 324, 336–338
DHCPRELEASE, DHCP messages, 325, 345–346
DHCPREQUEST, DHCP messages, 324, 338–340
Dial-Up Networking (DUN) connection, 492
Digital Intel Xerox (DIX). See Ethernet II
directory-integrated zone replication, 363
Discard Eligibility (DE), Frame Relay, 46
discovery. See neighbor discovery
Distributed File System (DFS), 434
distributed file system operations, 438
DLCI field, Frame Relay, 45
DNS. See Domain Name Service (DNS)
domain names, 353
Domain Name Service (DNS)
    background of, 351
    CIFS and, 434
    compared with NetBIOS, 408–409
    compared with WINS, 387
    integration with DHCP, 326
    resolver cache and, 360
Domain Name Service (DNS), key terms, 352–367
    AD-integrated zones, 358
    CNAMEs, 355–356
    components of, 352–353
    directory-integrated zone replication, 363
    DNS resolver, 359–360
    DNS resolver cache, 360
    DNS zones, 356–357
    domain names, 353
    domain name space, 353
    dynamic DNS, 365–366
    forwarder and slave servers, 364–365
    incremental zone transfers, 362–363
    inverse queries, 359
    IPv6 support and, 366–367
    negative caching, 361
    query classes, 359
    query operations, 356
    resource records (RRs), 354–355
    reverse-lookup zones, 358
    reverse queries, 359
    round robin load balancing, 365
    top-level domains, 353
    update operations, 356
    zone delegation, 363–364
    zone transfer, 361–362
Domain Name Service (DNS), messages, 377–384
    name-query messages, 382
    name-query response messages, 383
    name update messages, 383–384
    name update response messages, 384
    query messages, 378–380
    reverse-name query messages, 383
    RR format and, 380–381
    update messages, 381–382
Domain Name Service (DNS), operation of, 367–373
    configuring client functions of, 367
    dynamically updating, 332, 370–372
    resolving aliases with, 369–370
    resolving names with, 368–369
    transferring zone information with, 372–373
    updating DNS entries, 331–332
Domain Name Service (DNS), Resource Records (RRs), 373–377
    AD-integrated zone RRs and, 375
    canonical names (CNAME) RR, 376
    definition of, 373–375
    host address (A) RR, 375
    IPv6 host record (AAAA) RR, 376
    location of RRs, 375
    mail exchanger (MX) RR, 376
    pointer (PTR) RR, 376
    service locator (SRV) RR, 376–377
    Windows 2000 support and, 375–377
    zone data and, 374–375
domains
    domain names and, 353
    IPSec policies and, 483–484
    top-level domains and, 353
    zones and, 357
Don’t Fragment (DF) flag, fragmentation, 88, 93
dotted decimal notation, 114–115
drivers, IPSec, 482
DSAP (Destination Service Access Point), 10
DTE (data terminal equipment), X.25, 39
DTP (Data Transfer Process), 461–462
DUN (Dial-Up Networking) connection, 492
duplicate IP address detection. See gratuitous ARP
Dynamic DNS
    definition of, 365–366
    dynamic updating with, 332, 370–372
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), 321–328
    APIPA and, 326
    BOOTP Support and, 327–328
    clients and servers of, 322
    DNS integration and, 326
    function of, 322
    IP configuration with, 321
    leases/reservations and, 325
    messages of, 324–325
    multicast scopes and, 327
    option classes of, 324
    RAS and, 499
    relay agents and, 325
    RRAS and, 327
    scopes and options of, 323
    unauthorized DHCP servers and, 326
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), messages, 332–347
    DHCPACK, 340–341
    DHCPDECLINE, 341–343
    DHCPDISCOVER, 334–336
    DHCPINFORM, 346–347
    DHCPNAK, 343–345
    DHCPOFFER, 336–338
    DHCPRELEASE, 345–346
    DHCPREQUEST, 338–340
    general message format, 332–334
    message fields and descriptions, 333–334
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), operation of, 328–332
    changing subnets and servers, 329–330
    detecting unauthorized DHCP servers, 331
    obtaining initial leases, 328–329
    renewing leases, 329
    updating DNS entries, 331–332
    using relay agents, 330–331
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), options of, 347–350
    option formats, 347
    options present in all DHCP messages, 348–349
    options requested by DHCP clients, 349–350
    options supported by Windows 2000, 348–350
    vendor-specific options, 350
dynamic routing, 158–159
dynamic updates, DNS. See Dynamic DNS

E
EA (Extended Address) field, Frame Relay, 45–46
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol), 498
EFCI (Explicit Forward Congestion Indication), ATM cells, 48
embedded printing, IPP, 426
EnableDeadGWDetect, registry settings, 307
EnablePMTUBHDetect, registry settings, 174
EnablePMTUDiscovery, registry settings, 6
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), 487–488
    header layout of, 488–489
    packet layout and transform of, 489–490
encapsulation. See also LAN encapsulation
    L2TP and, 502
    PPTP and, 500
    TCP segments and, 236
    UDP messages and, 228–229
encryption
    ESP and, 487
    L2TP and, 503
    MPPE and, 497
    PPTP and, 501
    VPNs and, 499
End Delimiter field
    FDDI and, 25
    IEEE 802.5, 18
end-nodes, 387
End Of Option List, IP options, 97
entity, HTTP, 443
ESP. See Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
Ethernet
    Ethernet-based TCP connections and, 291
    Frame Padding field and, 66
    IEEE 802.3 frame format and, 9–14
    interframe gap of, 7
    LAN technologies and, 3
    MAC addresses and, 14–15
    multicast addresses and, 137
    overview of, 4
Ethernet II frame format, 4–8
    comparing with IEEE 802.3, 11
    header and trailer fields of, 5–7
    interframe gap of, 7
    minimum frame size of, 7–8
EtherType field, Ethernet II, 5–6
Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI), ATM cells, 48
Extended Address (EA) field, Frame Relay, 45–46
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), 498

F
fan out printing, IPP, 425
fast recovery, 316
fast retransmit, 315–317
    fast recovery and, 316
    TcpMaxDupAcks and, 316
FCS. See Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification), 46
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
    FDDI SNAP and, 26–28
    header and trailer fields of, 23–26
    IEEE 802.2 LLC header and, 25–26
    LAN technologies and, 3
    MAC addresses and, 28
    multicast addresses and, 137–138
File ID (FID), CIFS, 436
file sharing. See also Common Internet File System (CIFS)
    accessing files, 437
    overview of, 423
file structure, FTP, 464
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 461–468
    client-server sessions of, 463
    commands of, 461, 467
    connection management in, 465
    data structures of, 464
    data transfer with, 464
    data types and, 464
    introduction and terminology of, 461–462
    operation of, 462–463
    replies of, 467
    response codes of, 468
    restarting data transfers and, 466
    server-to-server sessions of, 463
FIN segments, TCP, 270
Flags field
    Frame Relay, 44
    IP, 83
    PPP, 33
flat routing, 156–157
flow control, TCP, 295–300
forwarder and slave servers, DNS, 364–365
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN), 46
Forwarding IP Address field, 144
forwarding processes, IP router, 151–152
forward-path, SMTP, 469
FQDN (fully qualified domain name), 353
fragmentation, IP, 87–96
    avoiding fragmentation, 93–96
    changes in IP header and, 89
    example of, 89–91, 91–92
    fragmentation fields and, 88–89
    fragmenting fragments and, 93
    PMTU Discovery and, 171–172
    reassembly and, 76
fragment blocks, 89
Fragment header, IPv6, 222–223
Fragment Offset field, 83, 88–89
Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
    Ethernet II, 6–7
    FDDI, 25
    Frame Relay, 44
    IEEE 802.3, 10
    IEEE 802.5, 18
    PPP, 34
Frame Control field
    FDDI, 23–24
    IEEE 802.5, 17
frame formats, 4
Frame Padding field, 66
Frame Relay, 42–46
    address field of, 45–46
    compared with X.25, 43
    encapsulation and, 44–46
    overview of, 42–43
    remote site connections and, 491
    WANs and, 29
frame size, Ethernet, 7–8
Frame Status field
    FDDI, 25
    IEEE 802.5, 19
frame structure, ARP, 62–66
FTP. See File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
fully qualified domain name (FQDN), 353
Functional Address bit, Token Ring, 22

G
gateways
    HTTP and, 442
    retransmission behavior and, 306–307
General Format Indicator (GFI), X.25, 41
Generic Float Control (GFC), ATM cells, 47–48
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), 500
GFI (General Format Indicator), X.25, 41
GlobalMaxTcpWindowSize, registry settings, 292
GPOs (Group policy Objects), 483–484
gratuitous ARP, 67–69
    address conflict exchange and, 68–69
    ArpRetryCount and, 67
    defending node and, 68
    offending node and, 67–68
GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation), 500
Group policy Objects (GPOs), IPSec, 483–484
groups
    addressing, 192
    naming Internet groups, 388
Group-Specific Query message, IGMPv2, 201

H
handshaking
    CHAP, 497–498
    PAP, 497
    TCP, 259
Hardware Address Length field, ARP, 63
Hardware Type field, ARP, 62–63
hash algorithms
    AH and, 485
    ESP and, 487
Header Checksum field, IP header, 86
Header Error Check (HEC), ATM cells, 49
Header Length field, IP header, 79
headers, HTTP
    entity header fields, 455–456
    general header fields, 457–458
    request header fields, 451–454
    response header fields, 454–455
headers, IP, 78–87
headers, IPv6
    Authentication header, 223
    Destination Options header and, 221
    extension headers of, 220
    fields of, 220
    format of, 219
    Fragment header, 222–223
    Hop-by-Hop Options header and, 221
    Routing header, 222
HEC (Header Error Check), ATM cells, 49
hierarchical routing, 156–157
H-node (hybrid node), 391, 393, 399
Hop-by-Hop Options header, IPv6, 221
host address (A) RR, 355, 375
host discovery, 218–219
hosted printing, IPP, 425
host group. See multicast group
host IDs, enumerating, 112
Host Membership Query messages, IGMPv1, 197
Host Membership Report messages, IGMPv1, 197
host routes, 144
hybrid node (H-node), 391, 393, 399
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), 441–461
    caching and, 460–461
    codings of, 458–459
    content negotiation on, 459–460
    introduction and terminology of, 441–443
    IPP print jobs and, 423
    messages and, 444–445
    operation of, 441–443
    request messages and, 445–446
    response messages and, 446–458
    URIs and, 443–444

I
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), 231
ICMP. See Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
ICMP Destination Unreachable, 167–171
    code values and meanings of, 168–169
    fields of, 167
    tracing, 169–171
ICMP Echo/Echo Reply, 165–167
    fields of, 166
    structure of, 167
ICMP Parameter Problem, 182–183
ICMP Redirect, 176–178
    fields of, 178
    process of, 177
    structure of, 177
ICMP Router Discovery, 178–181
    registry settings for, 181
    Router Advertisement and, 179–180
    Router Solicitation and, 180–181
ICMP Source Quench, 174–176
    fields of, 175–176
    structure of, 175
ICMP Time Exceeded, 181–182
    fields and structure of, 182
    when to set, 181
Identification field, IP, 83, 87–88
IEEE 802.2, 10–11, 19, 25–26
IEEE 802.3 frame format, 9–14
    ArpUseEtherSNAP and, 13–14
    comparing with Ethernet II, 11
    header and trailer fields of, 9–10
    IEEE 802.2 LLC header and, 10–11
    IEEE 802.3 SNAP and, 11–13
IEEE 802.5 frame format
    Access Control field and, 17
    header and trailer fields of, 17–19
    IEEE 802.5 SNAP and, 19–21
    LLC header and, 19
    Token Ring and, 16–19
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 322
I/G bit. See Individual/Group (I/G) bit
IGMPLevel, registry setting, 192
IGMP proxy mode, 205–206
IGMP router mode, 205
    multicast group members on, 206–207
    multicast sources on, 207
IGMP Version 1 (IGMPv1), 197–200
    example of use of, 198–200
    Host Membership Query messages and, 197
    Host Membership Report messages and, 197
    message structure of, 198
IGMP Version 2 (IGMPv2), 200–203
    example of use of, 203
    fields of, 202
    Group-Specific Query message of, 201
    Leave Group message of, 200–201
    message structure of, 201–202
    multicast queries and, 201
IIS. See Internet Information Server (IIS)
IKE (Internet Key Exchange), IPSec, 479
image data type, FTP, 465
InARP (Inverse ARP), 69–70
incremental zone transfers, 362–363, 372
Individual/Group (I/G) bit
    Ethernet MAC addresses and, 14
    Token Ring MAC addresses and, 21
informed discard, 163
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
    PPP and, 36
    WANs and, 29
integrity service, IPSec, 479
Interface field, IP routing table, 144
interfaces, 211
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 501
Internet, remote site connections and, 491
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), 231
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), 163–190. See also entries under ICMP
    message structure and fields of, 164
    message types, Destination Unreachable, 167–171
    message types, Echo/Echo Reply, 165–167
    message types, Parameter Problem, 182–183
    message types, Redirect, 176–178
    message types, Router Discovery, 178–181
    message types, Source Quench, 174–176
    message types, Time Exceeded, 181–182
    overview of, 163
    PATHPING utility and, 189–190
    PING utility and, 184–185
    PMTU Discovery and, 171–174
    TRACERT utility and, 186–189
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 322
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), 191–207. See also entries under IGMP
    IGMPv1 and, 197–200
    IGMPv2 and, 200–203
    IP Multicasting and, 191–196
    message structure of, 196–197
    Windows 2000 support and, 204–207
Internet groups, NetBIOS names, 388
Internet Information Server (IIS). See File Transfer Protocol (FTP); HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP); Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Internet Key Exchange (IKE), IPSec, 479
Internet Layer. See Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP); Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP); Internet Protocol (IP); Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP), 423–434
    embedded printing and, 426
    fan out printing and, 425
    hosted printing and, 425
    job-description attributes of, 431–432
    job-template attributes of, 430
    operation attributes of, 429
    operations of, 428–429
    overview of, 423–424
    printer-description attributes of, 432–433
    request/response mechanisms of, 427–428
    security of, 433–434
    specifications of, 426–427
Internet Protocol (IP), 75–106. See also entries under IP
    configuration with DHCP, 321
    datagrams and, 3–4, 77
    fragmentation and, 87–96
    header of, 78–87
    MTU and, 77–78
    options of, 96–106
    services of, 75–77
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
    compared with IPv6, 209–210
    embedded addresses and, 216
    IPSec and, 478
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), 209–224. See also entries under IPv6
    addressing and, 212–219
    developmental background of, 209–210
    embedded IPv4 addresses and, 216
    header format and routing mechanisms of, 219–223
    IPSec and, 478
    IPv6 host record (AAAA) RR, 376
    links, neighbors, link MTUs, and Link Address layer, 212
    overview of, 211–212
    RFCs relating to, 211
    transition mechanisms, IPv4 to IPv6, 224
    Windows 2000 DNS support for, 366–367
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP), 481–482, 484–485
Internet Service Provider (ISP), 492
Internet Timestamp, 104–106
    fields of, 104–105
    setting with PING utility, 105–106
internetworks
    protocols for, 75
    remote site connections and, 491
Inverse ARP (InARP), 69–70
inverse queries, DNS, 359
IP. See Internet Protocol (IP)
IP addressing, 107–138. See also subnetting
    binary/decimal conversions and, 108–109
    broadcast addresses and, 134–136
    DHCP and, 322
    expression of, 107–108
    IP header and, 109
    multicast addresses and, 136–138
    private addresses and, 132–134
    public addresses and, 131–132
    supernetting and, 128–131
    types of, 107
    unicast addresses and, 109–110
    Windows 2000 private IP addressing and, 134
IP broadcast addressing, 134–136
    all-subnets-directed broadcast, 135
    limited broadcast, 135–136
    network broadcast, 134–135
    subnet broadcast, 135
IP datagrams
    delivery of, 76
    direct and indirect deliveries of, 139–140
    IPSec and, 477
    LAN technologies for, 4–28
    Strict Source Route option for, 101
    tunneling and, 494–496
    WAN technologies for, 29–55
IP header
    Cost field, 82
    Delay field, 81
    Destination Address field, 86
    Flags field, 83
    Fragment Offset field, 83
    Header Checksum field, 86
    Header Length field, 79
    Identification field, 83
    Options and Padding field, 86–87
    Precedence field, 80–81
    Protocol field, 85
    Reliability field, 81
    Reserved field, 82
    Source Address field, 86
    Throughput field, 81
    Time To Live (TTL) field, 83–85
    Total Length field, 83
    Type Of Service (TOS) field, 80
    Version field, 78–79
IP multicast addressing, 136–138. See also multicast addresses
    mapping to MAC addresses, 137–138
    overview of, 136–137
IP multicasting, 191–196. See also entries under multicast
    host support for, 192–194
    internetworks and, 195–196
    overview of, 191–192
    receiving traffic on, 194
    registry settings for, 192
    router support for, 194–195
    sending traffic on, 192–193
    TTL settings for, 193
IP options
    Copy field, 96
    End Of Option List, 97
    Internet Timestamp, 104–106
    IP Router Alert, 103–104
    Loose Source Route, 102–103
    No Operation, 98
    Option Class field, 96–97
    Option Number field, 97
    Record Route, 98–99
    Strict Source Route, 100–102
IPP. See Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
IP Router Alert, 103–104
IP routing, 139–162
    class-based vs. classless routing, 155–156
    direct and indirect deliveries of, 139–140
    flat vs. hierarchical routing, 156–157
    forwarding processes of, 151–153
    overview of, 139–140
    PMTU Discovery and, 173–174
    single-path vs. multi-path routing, 154
    single vs. multiple autonomous systems, 161
    static vs. dynamic routing, 157–161
    types of links for, 140–142
    utilities for, 161–162
    Windows 2000 and, 146–150
IP routing table, 143–146
    destination values of, 143
    field structure of, 143–144
    route determination process of, 145–146
    route types of, 144–145
IPSec policies, 479–480
    applying, 484
    obtaining, 483–484
IPSec Policy Agent, 479, 480–481
IPSec SA, 481, 485
IP Security (IPSec), operation of, 477–490
    applying IPSec policies, 484
    authentication header layout, 486
    authentication header packet transform, 486–487
    background of, 477–478
    computing authentication header field value of, 487
    creating security associations (SAs) and, 484–485
    ESP and, 487–488
    ESP header layout and, 488–489
    ESP packet layout and transform and, 489–490
    generating new keys with, 485
    obtaining IPSec policies, 483–484
IP Security (IPSec), terminology and concepts, 478–483
    anti-replay service of, 479
    architecture of, 479
    authentication service of, 478–479
    confidentiality service of, 479
    driver for, 482
    IKE and, 481
    integrity service of, 479
    IPSec policy and, 479–480
    ISAKMP and, 481–482
    key management service of, 479
    modes of, 482–483
    non-repudiation service of, 479
    Oakley key determination protocol and, 482
    Policy Agent and, 480–481
    security associations (SAs) and, 481
    SPI and, 482
IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). See Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6). See Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
IPv6 addressing
    anycast addresses and, 216
    multicast addresses and, 216–217
    neighbor discovery and, 217–219
    text representation of, 212–213
    unicast addresses and, 213–216
IPv6 host record (AAAA) RR, 376
IPv6 support, 366–367
ISAKMP (Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol), 481–482, 484–485
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), 29
    PPP and, 36
ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 501
ISP (Internet Service Provider), 492
iterative queries, DNS query classes, 359


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Last Updated: Friday, July 6, 2001