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Microsoft® Windows® 2000 TCP/IP Protocols and Services Technical Reference
Author Thomas Lee and Joseph Davies
Pages 576
Disk 1 Companion CD(s)
Level Int/Adv
Published 01/05/2000
ISBN 9780735605565
ISBN-10 0-7356-0556-4
Price(USD) $49.99
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Index


J
job attributes, IPP, 426–427, 430–432

K
Karn’s algorithm, 313–315
KeepAliveInterval, TCP connections, 270
keepalive segments, TCP connections, 259, 269
KeepAliveTime, TCP connections, 270
Kerberos authentication, 436, 479
keys
    AH hasing, 485
    determining with Oakley protocol, 482
    ESP hashing, 487
    generating new keys, 485
    IPSec management service for, 479

L
L2TP. See Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
LANs. See local area networks (LANs)
LAPB (Link Access Procedure-Balanced)
    header and trailer fields of, 42
    X.25 and, 40
lastack variable, timestamps, 311–313
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), 501–503
    comparing VPN protocols and, 493–494
    encapsulation with, 502
    encryption with, 503
    installation of, 501–502
    introduction to, 501
LCN (Logical Channel Number), X.25, 41–42
LCP (Link Control Protocol), 496
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), 484
leases, DHCP, 325
    obtaining an initial lease, 328–329
    renewing leases, 329
Leave Group message, IGMPv2, 200–201
Length field, IEEE 802.3, 10
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), 484
lightweight protocols, 228
Link Access Procedure-Balanced (LAPB)
    header and trailer fields of, 42
    X.25 and, 40
Link Control Protocol (LCP), 496
Link Layer addresses, 212
links, 212
LLC (Logical Link Control), 4
local area networks (LANs), 3–28
    encapsulations and, 3–4
    Ethernet and, 4–15
    FDDI and, 22–28
    Token Ring and, 15–22
    VPNs and, 493
logical byte size, FTP, 462
Logical Channel Number (LCN), X.25, 41–42
Logical Link Control (LLC), 4
Loose Source Route, IP options, 102–103
    fields of, 102
    sending IP datagrams with, 102–103
    setting with PING utility, 103
Lotus Notes, NetBIOS names, 389

M
mail exchanger (MX), RR, 355, 376
mail services. See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
MaxFreeTWTcbs, registry settings, 280
Maximum Receive Unit (MRU), 36
maximum segment size (MSS), 247–249
    small segments and, 293
    SWS and, 295
maximum transmission unit (MTU), 36
    definition of, 212
    IP and, 77–78
    translational bridging and, 94–96
MaxUserPort, TCP ports, 240–241
MBONE (Multicast Backbone), 196
Media Access Control (MAC)
    Ethernet special bits and, 14–15
    FDDI special bits and, 21–22
    frame formats and, 4
    mapping MAC addresses to IP multicast addresses, 137–138
    Token Ring special bits and, 21–22
    updating ARP cache entries and, 60
messages, DHCP
    DHCPACK, DHCP messages, 340–341
    DHCPDECLINE, DHCP messages, 341–343
    DHCPDISCOVER, DHCP messages, 334–336
    DHCPINFORM, DHCP messages, 346–347
    DHCPNAK, DHCP messages, 343–345
    DHCPOFFER, DHCP messages, 336–338
    DHCPRELEASE, DHCP messages, 345–346
    DHCPREQUEST, DHCP messages, 338–340
    general format of, 332–334
    sending and receiving application layer messages, 324–325
messages, DNS, 377–384
    name-query messages, 382
    name-query response messages, 383
    name update messages, 383–384
    name update response messages, 384
    query messages, 378–380
    reverse-name query messages, 383
    RR format and, 380–381
    update messages, 381–382
messages, HTTP, 444–458
    definition of, 442
    message headers, 445
    message types, 444
    request messages, 445–446
    response messages, 446–458
messages, IGMP
    IGMPv1, 198
    IGMPv2, 201–202
messages, NetBIOS. See messages, WINS
messages, UDP, 228–229
messages, WINS, 404–420
    format of, 404–405
    Name Query Request message, 418–419
    Name Query Response, 419
    Name Refresh message, 416
    Name Registration message, 413
    Name Registration Response, 414–415
    Name Release Request message, 416–417
    Name Release Response message, 417–418
    Name Response message, 419–420
    Name Service header and, 405–407
    NetBIOS name representation and, 408–409
    question entries and, 409–410
    resource record compression and, 412–413
    resource records (RRs) and, 410–412
    Wait Acknowledgement message, 420
methods, HTTP
    method codes and, 445–446
    safe methods and, 445–446
Metric field, IP routing table, 144
Microsoft CHAP (MS-CHAP), 498
Microsoft Exchange, NetBIOS names and, 389
Microsoft-modified B-node, 391
Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression (MPPC), 497, 499
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE), 497, 499
Microsoft Windows 2000. See Windows 2000
M-node (mixed node), 390–391, 393, 399
More Fragments (MF) flag, 88
MP (Multilink Protocol). See Multilink Protocol (MP)
MPPC (Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression), 497, 499
MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption), 497, 499
MRU (Maximum Receive Unit), 36
MSS. See maximum segment size (MSS)
MTU. See maximum transmission unit (MTU)
multicast addresses, 216–217. See also IP multicast addressing
    address classes and, 111
    definition of, 212
    fields of, 217
    format of, 217
Multicast Backbone (MBONE), 196
multicast groups
    definition of, 192
    IGMP router mode and, 206–207
multicasting. See IP multicasting
multicast queries, IGMPv2, 201
multicast scopes, 327
multicast sources, IGMP router mode, 207
Multilink Protocol (MP), 36–38
    function of, 36–37
    header and trailer fields of, 37–38
multi-path routing, 154
multiple client protocols, 76

N
Nagle algorithm, 293–294
name defense, NetBIOS names, 392
name-query messages
    DNS, 382, 383
    NetBIOS, 402–403, 418–420
Name Refresh message, NetBIOS, 403, 416
name registration, NetBIOS, 391, 400–401
Name Registration message, NetBIOS, 413–415
    format of, 413
    negative Name Registration Response, 414–415
    positive Name Registration Response, 414
Name Registration Request, NetBIOS, 398–400
    name renewal request, 400
    negative reply, 399–400
    positive reply, 399
    wait acknowledgement, 400
name release, NetBIOS, 395
Name Release Request message, NetBIOS, 416–417
Name Release Response message, NetBIOS, 417–418
name representation, NetBIOS, 408–409
name resolution
    CIFS, 434
    DNS, 352, 368–369
    WINS, 392–394
name servers (NS)
    DNS components and, 353
    RRs and, 355
Name Service header, NetBIOS, 405–407
    Flags field of, 406–407
    format of, 405
    operation codes and meanings, 407
name service messages. See NetBIOS name service messages
Name Service Question entries, 409–410
name spaces, 352. See also domain name space
name update messages, DNS, 383–384
name update response messages, DNS, 384
NAT (Network address translator), 244, 396
NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) links, IP routing, 142
NCP (Network Control Protocol), 496
NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification), 482, 495
negative caching
    definition of, 361
neighbor discovery, 217–219
    host discovery and, 218–219
    router discovery and, 218
neighbors, 212
NetBEUI, 385
NetBIOS
    CIFS and, 434
    file sharing and, 423
    overview of, 385–386
NetBIOS names
    format of, 404–405
    header and, 405–407
    name cache and, 394–395
    name compression and, 412–413
    name defense and, 392
    name release and, 395, 401
    name representation and, 408–409
    name resolution and, 352, 392–394, 401–403
    name service operations and, 389
    question entries and, 409–410
    refreshing, 403
    registering, 398–401
    resource records (RRs) and, 410–412
    specifications of, 387–388
    suffixes of, 388–389
    time to live (TTL) and, 392
    types of, 388
NetBIOS names, messages, 404–420
    Name Query Request, 418–419
    Name Query Response, 419
    Name Refresh, 416
    Name Registration, 413
    Name Registration Response, 414–415
    Name Release Request, 416–417
    Name Release Response, 417–418
    Name Response, 419–420
    Wait Acknowledgement, 420
NetBIOS node types, 390–391
NetBIOS scope, 389–390
NetBIOS scope identifier, 390
Network address translator (NAT), 244, 396
network broadcast, 134–135
Network Control Protocol (NCP), 496
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS), 482, 495
network IDs
    binary subnetting and, 118–121
    classes and, 119–120
    decimal subnetting and, 122–123
    enumerating, 112
    expressing and determining, 116–117
    routes and, 144–145
Network Information Center (NIC), 351
Network Interface Layer. See also Address Resolution Protocol (ARP); local area networks (LANs); wide area networks (WANs)
    IP independence form, 76
    IP MTUs and, 77
Network Layer, OSI, 40
Network Layer Protocol Identifier (NLPID), X.25, 40–41, 44
Network Mask field, IP routing table, 143–144
Network Monitor
    PING utility and, 185–186
    TRACERT utility and, 187–188
network prefix notation, 115–116
network resources, 387
network-to-network interface (NNI), ATM cells, 47
network troubleshooting. See PING utility
NIC (Network Information Center), 351
NLPID (Network Layer Protocol Identifier), X.25, 40–41, 44
NNI (network-to-network interface), ATM cells, 47
Node Operation, IP options, 98
nodes
    definition of, 211
    types of, 390–391
non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) links, IP routing, 142
non-repudiation service, IPSec, 479
NotRcvd/Inside data, receive window, 289
NotRcvd/Outside data, receive window, 289
NWLink (IPX), 385

O
Oakley key determination protocol, 482
offending node, 67–68
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
    IP datagrams and, 3
    PPTP and, 499
    X.25 layers of, 40
Operation (Opcode) field, ARP header, 63
operation attributes, IPP, 427, 429
operations, DNS
    query operations, 356
    update operations, 356
operations, IPP, 428–429
opportunistic locks (oplocks)
    batch oplocks, 439
    exclusive oplocks, 438–439
    level II oplocks, 439
option classes, DHCP, 324
Option Class field, IP options, 96–97
Option Number field, IP options, 97
options, DHCP, 347–350
    administration levels for, 323
    option formats, 347
    options present in all DHCP messages, 348–349
    options requested by DHCP clients, 349–350
    options supported by Windows 2000, 348–350
    vendor-specific options, 350
Options and Padding field, IP header, 86–87
Organizational Unit (OU) policies, IPSec and, 483–484
OSPF, IP routing, 160
out of band data, 244
output devices, 424

P
packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), X.25, 39
packet-switched public data network (PSPDN), X.25, 39
packet-switching, 76–77
Packet Type Identifier, X.25, 41–42
PAD (packet assembler/disassembler), X.25, 39
page structure, FTP, 464
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), 497
Path MTU (PMTU) Discovery, 171–176
    adjusting, 172–173
    avoiding fragmentation with, 171–172
    registry settings for, 174
    router support for, 173–174
PATHPING utility, 189–190
    function of, 189–190
    options of, 190
    routing utilities and, 162
Payload field
    Ethernet II, 6
    FDDI, 25–26
    IEEE 802.5, 18
payloads
    IP payload and, 78
    setting size of, 94
Payload Type Indicator (PTI), 48
PerformRouterDiscovery, Windows 2000, 181
permanent groups, 192
Physical Layer, OSI
    ATM and, 50
    X.25 and, 40
PID (Process ID), CIFS, 436
PING utility, 184–185
    creating source-fragmented packets with, 94
    example of use of, 185–186
    options of, 184–185
    routing utilities and, 162
    setting DF flag with, 93
    setting Loose Source Route with, 103
    setting payload size with, 94
    setting Record Route option with, 99
    setting Strict Source Route with, 102
    setting Timestamp option with, 105–106
    setting TOS with, 82
    setting TTL with, 85
PLP header, X.25, 40–41
PMTU Discovery. See Path MTU (PMTU) Discovery
P-node (point-to-point node), 390, 393, 398
pointer (PTR), RR, 355, 376
point-to-point links, IP routing, 141–142
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), 32–36
    asynchoronous links and, 35
    data link encapsulation and, 32
    header and trailer fields of, 33–34
    maximum transmission unit for, 36
    synchronous links and, 35–36
    VPNs and, 496–497
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), 499–501
    comparing VPN protocols, 493–494
    encapsulation with, 500
    encryption with, 501
    installation of, 500
    introduction to, 499–500
Port numbers, IANA
    TCP and, 240
    UDP and, 232
PPP. See Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
PPTP. See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
Preamble field
    Ethernet II, 5
    FDDI, 23
    IEEE 802.3, 9–10
Precedence field, IP header, 80–81
printer attributes, IPP, 426, 432–433
printers
    definition of, 424
    installation of, 423–424
printer sharing. See also Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
    accessing printers, 437
    overview of, 423
printing
    embedded printing, 426
    fan out printing, 425
    hosted printing, 425
privacy, IPSec, 477
private addresses, IP addressing, 132–134
probing the window, 287
Process ID (PID), CIFS, 436
Protocol Address Length field, ARP, 63
Protocol field
    IP, 85
    PPP, 33
protocol identification
    LAN encapsulations and, 3
    WAN encapsulations and, 29
Protocol Interpreter (PI), 462
Protocol Type field, ARP, 63
proxy, HTTP, 442
proxy ARP, 70–72
PSPDN (packet-switched public data network), X.25, 39
PTI (Payload Type Indicator), 48
public addresses, IP addressing, 131–132
public keys, 479

Q
queries, DNS
    inverse queries, 359
    query classes, 359
    reverse queries, 359
query messages, DNS
    flags field, 378–379
    format of, 377
    header fields of, 377–378
    question entries and, 379–380
query operations, DNS, 356
query reply message, DNS, 356
question entries, NetBIOS, 409–410

R
range, HTTP, 442–443
RAS (Remote Access Server), 499
Rcvd/ACKed/NotRetr data, receive window, 288–289
Rcvd/ACKed/Retr data, receive window, 288
Rcvd/UnACKed data, receive window, 289
read-ahead and write-behind operations, 438
reassembly, IP fragmentation and, 91–92
receiver-side flow control, 295
receiver-SMTP process, 469
receive window, TCP, 287–293
    NotRcvd/Inside data of, 289
    NotRcvd/Outside data of, 289
    Rcvd/ACKed/NotRetr data of, 288–289
    Rcvd/ACKed/Retr data of, 288
    Rcvd/UnACKed data of, 289
    setting size of, 290–293
    shrinking the receive window, 290
    sliding the receive window, 289–290
Record Route, IP options
    fields of, 98
    processing, 99
    setting with PING utility, 99
record structure, FTP, 464
registry settings
    EnableDeadGWDetect, 307
    EnablePMTUBHDetect, 174
    EnablePMTUDiscovery, 6
    GlobalMaxTcpWindowSize, 292
    MaxFreeTWTcbs, 280
    SackOpts, 255
    Tcp1323Opts, 251
    TcpDelAckTicks, 282
    TcpInitialRTT, 309
    TcpMaxConnectResponseRetransmissions, 268, 305–306
    TcpMaxConnectRetransmissions, 265, 305
    TcpMaxDataRetransmissions, 304–305
    TcpMaxDupAcks, 316
    TcpMaxHalfOpen, 268
    TcpMaxHalfOpenRetried, 268
    TcpMaxPortsExhausted, 269
    TcpNumConnections, 265
    TcpTimedWaitDelay, 279
    TcpUseRFC1122UrgentPointer, 246
    TcpWindowSize, 292–293
registry settings, ARP
    ArpAlwaysSourceRoute, 61
    ArpCacheLife, 59
    ArpCacheMinReferencedLife, 59–60
    ArpRetryCount, 67
    ArpTRSingleRoute, 61
    ArpUseEtherSNAP, 13–14, 60–61
registry settings, ICMP Router Discovery, 181
registry settings, PMTU Discovery, 174
registry settings, TCP connection establishment process, 265–266
registry settings, TCP connection termination process, 279–280
registry settings, Windows 2000
    acknowledgment delay period and, 282
    ARP and, 60–61
    IP multicasting and, 192
    PMTU and, 174
    receive window size and, 292–293
    Router Discovery and, 181
    SYN attacks and, 268–269
    TCP connection establishment and, 265–266
    TCP connection termination and, 279–280
    TCP SACK option and, 255
    TCP Urgent Data and, 246
    TCP Window Scale option and, 251
registry settings for ARP
    Windows 2000, 60–61
registry settings for DefaultTOS
    Windows 2000, 82
registry settings for DefaultTTL
    Windows 2000, 85
registry settings for IP MTU
    Windows 2000, 77
relay agents, DHCP, 325, 330–331
Reliability field, IP header, 81
Remote Access Server (RAS), 499
Remote Network VPN, 493
remote site connections. See Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
Remote User VPN, 493
replications, WINS, 397
replies, FTP, 461
request messages, HTTP, 445–446
    header fields of, 451–454
    method codes and, 445–446
    overview of, 445
    safe methods and, 445–446
request/response mechanisms, IPP, 427–428
requests, HTTP, 442
reservations, DHCP, 325
Reserved field, IP header, 82
resolver, DNS
    definition of, 359–360
    DNS components and, 353
    resolving aliases, 369–370
    resolving names, 368–369
resource record name compression, NetBIOS, 412–413
resource records (RRs)
    definition of, 354–355, 373–375
    DNS components and, 352
    DNS messages and, 380–381
    NetBIOS and, 410–412
    Windows 2000 and, 355, 375–377
    zone data and, 374–375
resource records (RRs), DNS, 373–377
    AD-integrated zone RRs and, 375
    canonical names (CNAME) RR, 376
    host address (A) RR, 375
    IPv6 host record (AAAA) RR, 376
    location of RRs, 375
    mail exchanger (MX) RR, 376
    pointer (PTR) RR, 376
    service locator (SRV) RR, 376–377
resources, HTTP, 442
response messages, HTTP, 446–458
    definition of, 442
    header fields of, 454–455
    status codes and, 447–451
retransmission behavior, 303–308
    calculating, 308–313
    dead gateway detection and, 306–307
    EnableDeadGWDetect and, 307
    new connections and, 305–306
    RTO and, 303
    SACK option and, 307–308
    TcpInitialRTT and, 309
    TcpMaxConnectResponseRetransmissions and, 305–306
    TcpMaxConnectRetransmissions and, 305
    TcpMaxDataRetransmissions and, 304–305
    timestamp options and, 309–313
retransmission time-out (RTO)
    congestion collapse and, 302–303
    Karn’s algorithm and, 313–315
    RTT and, 301–303
reverse-lookup zones, 358
reverse-name query messages, DNS, 383
reverse-path, SMTP, 469
reverse queries, DNS, 359
RIP, IP routing, 159
Rogue DHCP servers, 326
Rogue Server Detection, 331
round robin load balancing, 365
round-trip time (RTT), 301–303
route determination, 145
router discovery, 218
routers
    definition of, 211
    router support for IP multicasting, 194–195
ROUTE utility, 162
routing. See also Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR); IP routing
    CIDR and, 131
    dynamic routing, 158–159
    flat vs. hierarchical routing, 156–157
    host routes, 144
    source routing, 100–103
    static routing, 157–158
    utilities for, 162
    variable-length subnetting and, 128
Routing and Remote Access Server (RRAS), 204–207
    DHCP and, 327
    DHCP relay agents and, 325
    IGMP proxy mode and, 205–206
    IGMP router mode and, 205
    multicast group members and, 206–207
    multicast sources and, 207
    PPTP and, 500
    proxy ARP and, 71
    WINS proxy and, 396
Routing header, IPv6, 222
Routing Information Indicator bit
    Ethernet MAC addresses and, 15
    Token Ring MAC addresses and, 22
RST (Reset) flag, TCP, 275
RTO. See retransmission time-out (RTO)
RTT (round-trip time), 301–303

S
SACK (selective acknowledgment scheme), 283–284, 307–308
SackOpts, registry settings, 255
SAP (Service Access Point), 11
SAR (Segmentation and Reassembly) sublayer, AAL, 51
SAs. See security associations (SAs)
scopes, DHCP, 323
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), 433
security. See IP Security (IPSec)
security, IPP, 433–434
security associations (SAs), 481–485
    IPSec SA and, 481
    ISAKMP SA and, 481–482
Security Parameters Index (SPI), 482
Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) sublayer, AAL, 51
selective acknowledgment scheme (SACK), 283–284, 307–308
Sender Hardware Address (SHA) field, ARP, 63
Sender Protocol Address (SPA) field, ARP, 63
sender-side flow control, 295–300
    congestion avoidance algorithm and, 298–300
    slow start algorithm and, 296–298
sender-SMTP process, 469
sending host forwarding process, 151
send window, TCP, 284–287
    Sent/ACKed data of, 285
    Sent/UnACKed data of, 285
    sliding the send window, 286–287
    Unsent/Inside data of, 286
    Unsent/Outside data of, 286
    zero send window and, 287
Sent/ACKed data, 285
Sent/UnACKed data, 285
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), 30–32
    character stuffing and, 30–31
    frame delimitation services of, 30–31
Server Message Block (SMB)
    CIFS and, 434
    session setup and tear down, 436–437
servers
    DHCP, 322, 326, 329–331
    DNS, 364–365
    HTTP, 442
Service Access Point (SAP), 11
service locator (SRV), RR, 355, 376–377
SHA (Sender Hardware Address) field, ARP, 63
Shiva Password Authentication Protocol (SPAP), 497
silent discard, 163
Silly Window Syndrome (SWS), 294–295
    receiver-side avoidance of, 295
    sender-side avoidance of, 295
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), 468–475
    commands of, 471–474
    introduction and terminology of, 468–469
    operation of, 469–471
    replies of, 474–475
single-path routing, 154
sliding windows, TCP, 284–293
    receive window, 287–293
    send window, 284–287
SLIP. See Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
small segments, 293–295
    Nagle algorithm and, 293–294
    SWS and, 294–295
SMB (Server Message Block)
    CIFS and, 434
    session setup and tear down, 436–437
SMTP. See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
SNAP. See Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) encapsuation
SOA (start of authority), RR, 332, 355
SolicitationAddressBCast, Windows 2000, 181
SON (Synchronous Optical Network), PPP, 36
Source Address field
    Ethernet II, 5
    FDDI, 25
    IEEE 802.3, 10
    IEEE 802.5, 18
    IP, 86
source routing, 100–103
    Loose Source Route, 100–102
    Strict Source Route, 100–102
Source Service Access Point (SSAP), IEEE 802.2, 10
SPA (Sender Protocol Address) field, ARP, 63
SPAP (Shiva Password Authentication Protocol), 497
SPI (Security Parameters Index), 482
SRV (service locator), RR, 355, 376–377
SSAP (Source Service Access Point), IEEE 802.2, 10
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), 433
Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 351
Start Delimiter field
    FDDI, 23
    IEEE 802.3, 9
    IEEE 802.5, 17
start of authority (SOA), RR, 332, 355
static routing, 157–158
status codes, HTTP
    status code classes, 447
    status code meanings, 447–451
sthresh variable, 317
stream mode, FTP, 466
Strict Source Route, IP options, 100–102
    fields of, 101
    sending IP datagrams with, 101
    setting with PING utility, 102
subnet broadcast, 135
subnet masks, 114–116
    dotted decimal notation and, 114–115
    network prefix notation and, 115–116
subnetting, 113–128
    all-zeros and all-ones, 125
    binary method for, 117, 118–122
    Class A network IDs, 119
    Class B network IDs, 120
    Class C network IDs, 120
    decimal method for, 117, 122–124
    DHCP messages, 329–330
    dotted decimal notation and, 114–115
    network IDs and, 116–117
    network prefix notation and, 115–116
    overview of, 113–114
    process of, 117
    subnet masks and, 114–116
    variable-length subnetting, 125–128
Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
    AAL5 and, 55
    ArpUseEtherSNAP and, 13–14
    IEEE 802.3 SNAP and, 11–13
supernetting, CIDR and, 128–131
SWS. See Silly Window Syndrome (SWS)
SYN (synchronize) segment
    establishing TCP connections and, 259–262
    retransmission behavior and, 305
SYN-ACK segment, 262–263
SynAttackProtect, 268
SYN attacks, 267–269
    defending against, 268–269
    example of, 267–268
    results of, 267
synchronous links, PPP, 35–36
Synchronous Optical Network (SON), PPP, 36

T
Target Hardware Address (THA) field, ARP, 64
Target Protocol Address (TPA) field, ARP, 64
T-carrier
    PPP and, 36
    WANs and, 29
Tcp1323Opts, registry settings, 251
TCP connection establishment process, 260–266
    ACK segment of, 263–264
    registry settings for, 265–266
    results of, 265
    SYN (synchronize) segment of, 260–262
    SYN-ACK segment of, 262–263
TCP connection reset, 275–277
TCP connections, maintaining
    KeepAliveInterval, 270
    keepalive segments and, 269
    KeepAliveTime, 270
TCP connection states, 277–279
    during connection establishment, 279
    during connection termination, 279
    table and illustration of, 277–278
TCP connection termination process, 270–275
    FIN segments and, 270
    registry settings for, 279–280
    segment exchange in, 271–275
TcpDelAckTicks, registry settings, 282
TCP flags, 242–243
TCP header, 237–239
    fields of, 237–239
    structure of, 237
TcpInitialRTT, registry settings, 309
TcpMaxConnectResponseRetransmissions, registry settings, 268, 305–306
TcpMaxConnectRetransmissions, registry settings, 265, 305
TcpMaxDataRetransmissions, registry settings, 304–305
TcpMaxDupAcks, registry settings, 316
TcpMaxHalfOpen, registry settings, 268
TcpMaxHalfOpenRetried, registry settings, 268
TcpMaxPortsExhausted, registry settings, 269
TcpNumConnections, registry settings, 265
TCP ports, 239–241
    MaxUserPort and, 240–241
    well known port numbers, 240
TCP pseudo header, 243–244
TCP segments, 236
TCP three-way handshake. See TCP connection establishment process
TcpTimedWaitDelay, registry settings, 279
TCP Urgent Data, 244–246
TcpUseRFC1122UrgentPointer, registry settings, 246
TcpWindowSize, registry settings, 292–293
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), 327
THA (Target Hardware Address) field, ARP, 64
Throughput field, IP header, 81
TID (Tree ID), CIFS, 436
timestamp, Internet Timestamp, 104–106
    fields of, 104–105
    setting with PING utility, 105–106
Timestamps option, TCP
    delayed acknowledgments and, 311
    Karn’s algorithm and, 315
    out-of-order segments and, 312
    pauses in data and, 310
    retransmission behavior and, 309–313
time to live (TTL)
    definition of, 373
    DNS, 367
    NetBIOS, 392
Time To Live (TTL) field, IP header, 83–85
    DefaultTTL and, 84
    setting with PING utility, 85
Token Ring
    IEEE 802.5 frame format and, 16–19
    IEEE 802.5 SNAP and, 19–21
    LAN technologies and, 3
    MAC addresses and, 21–22
    multicast addresses and, 138
    overview of, 15–16
top-level domains, 353
Total Length field, IP header, 83
TPA (Target Protocol Address) field, ARP, 64
TRACERT utility, 186–189
    Network Monitor and, 187–188
    options of, 189
    routing utilities and, 162
    steps in function of, 186–187
transfer byte size, FTP, 462
transfer codings, HTTP, 459
transition mechanisms, IPv4 to IPv6, 224
translational bridging, 94–96
transmission channels, SMTP, 469
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 235–258. See also entries under TCP
    End Of Option List option, 246
    flags of, 242–243
    header format of, 237–239
    MSS option, 247–249
    No Operation option, 246
    overview of, 235–236
    ports of, 239–241
    pseudo header of, 243–244
    SACK option, 253–255
    SACK-Permitted option, 252–253
    TCP segments and, 236
    Timestamps option, 255–258
    urgent data and, 244–246
    Window Scale option, 249–251
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), connections, 259–280
    definition of, 259
    establishing, 260–266
    half-open connections and, 266–269
    maintaining, 269–270
    resetting, 275–277
    states of, 277–278
    terminating, 270–275, 279–280
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), data flow, 281–300
    ACK segments and, 281–284
    data flow behavior overview, 281
    sender-side flow control and, 295–300
    sliding windows and, 284–293
    small segments and, 293–295
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), retransmission and time-out, 301–317
    calculating RTO, 308–313
    fast retransmit and, 315–317
    Karn’s algorithm and, 313–315
    retransmission behavior and, 303–308
    RTO and, 301–303
Transport Layer. See also Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    using TCP for reliability, 235
    using UDP for minimum overhead, 227
transport mode, IPSec, 482–483
Tree ID (TID), CIFS, 436
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), 327
tsrecent variable, 311–313
TTL (time to live)
    definition of, 373
    DNS, 367
    IP, 83–85
    NetBIOS, 392
tunneling
    HTTP and, 442
    implementing VPNs by means of, 494–496
    IPSec tunnel mode and, 482–483
Type Of Service (TOS) field, IP header, 80, 82

U
UDP. See User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP header, 229–231
    fields of, 229–230
    structure of, 229
UDP ports, 231–233
    MaxUserPort and, 232–233
    well known port numbers, 232
UDP pseudo header, 230–231
U/L (Universal Locally) Administered bit
    Ethernet MAC addresses and, 14–15
    Token Ring MAC addresses and, 21
unauthorized DHCP servers, 326, 331
UNC (Universal Naming Convention), 423
UNI (user network interface), ATM, 47
unicast addresses
    Aggregatable Global, 214–215
    definition of, 212
    local-use, 215
    reserved, 213–214
unicast IP addressing, 109–110. See also subnetting
    address classes and, 110–111
    enumerating host IDs and, 112
    enumerating network IDs and, 112
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), 442–444
Uniform Resource Locator (URL), 442
unique names, 388
Universal Locally (U/L) Administered bit
    Ethernet MAC addresses and, 14–15
    Token Ring MAC addresses and, 21
Universal Naming Convention (UNC), 423
Unsent/Inside data, 286
Unsent/Outside data, 286
update messages, DNS
    flags of, 381–382
    format of, 381
update operations, DNS, 356
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), 442–444
URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 444
User class options, DHCP, 324, 350
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 227–234
    data transportation with, 227
    DNS messages and, 377
    header format of, 229–231
    overview of, 227
    ports of, 231–233
    process for demultiplexing UDP messages, 233
    UDP messages and, 228–229
    uses for, 228
user network interface (UNI), ATM, 47

V
variable-length subnetting, 125–128
    example of, 126–127
    overview of, 125–126
    routing and, 128
variant, HTTP, 443
VCIs (Virtual Channel Identifiers), 48
VCs (virtual circuits), CIFS, 436
Vendor class options, DHCP, 324, 350
Version field, IP header, 78–79
Virtual Channel Identifiers (VCIs), 48
virtual circuits (VCs), CIFS, 436
Virtual Path Identifiers (VPIs), 48
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), 491–503. See also Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP); Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
    address assignment on, 498–499
    authentication on, 497–498
    clients and servers of, 493
    data compression on, 499
    data encryption on, 499
    description of, 492–493
    PPP and, 496–497
    protocols for, 493–494
    tunneling and, 494–496
VPIs (Virtual Path Identifiers), 48
VPN. See Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

W
Wait Acknowledgement message, NetBIOS, 420
WANs. See wide area networks (WANs)
Web publishing. See HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
wide area networks (WANs), 29–55
    ATM encapsulation and, 46–55
    Frame Relay encapsulation and, 42–46
    point-to-point encapsulation and, 30–38
    WAN encapsulations, 29–30
    X.25 encapsulation and, 39–42
Windows 2000
    authentication and, 479, 498
    automatic private IP addressing and, 134
    CIFS and, 434
    controlling TCP connection terminations in, 279
    DHCP and, 322–332
    dynamic DNS implementation in, 332
    dynamic routing and, 161
    IP multicasting and, 204–207
    maximum receive window size and, 290–293
    name resolution in, 352
    NetBIOS suffixes and, 388–389
    RAS and, 499
    registry settings for ARP, 60–61
    registry settings for DefaultTOS, 82
    registry settings for DefaultTTL, 85
    registry settings for IP MTU, 77
    Router Discovery and, 181
    RRAS and, 71, 204–207, 500
    RRs supported by, 375–377
    static routing and, 158
    WINS and, 387
Windows 2000 IP routing, 146–150
    displaying example of, 146–147
    maintenance of, 148–149
    multihomed node example of, 148
    process in, 149–150
    route determination in, 150
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), 398–403
    CIFS and, 434
    definition of, 387
    determining adapter status, 403
    NetBIOS and, 352, 385–386
    registering names, 398–400
    releasing names, 401
    resolving name registration conflicts, 400–401
    resolving names, 401–403
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), key terms
    adapter status, 398
    end-nodes, 387
    Microsoft-modified B-node, 391
    name defense, 392
    name registration, 391
    name release, 395
    NetBIOS Name cache, 394–395
    NetBIOS name resolution, 392–394
    NetBIOS names, 387–388
    NetBIOS name service operations, 389
    NetBIOS names suffix, 388–389
    NetBIOS name types, 388
    NetBIOS node types, 390–391
    NetBIOS scope, 389–390
    network resources, 387
    time-to-live (TTL), 392
    WINS database entries, 397
    WINS proxy, 396
    WINS server replication, 397
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), messages
    format of, 404–405
    Name Query Request message, 418–419
    Name Query Response, 419
    Name Refresh message, 416
    Name Registration message, 413
    Name Registration Response, 414–415
    Name Release Request message, 416–417
    Name Release Response message, 417–418
    Name Response message, 419–420
    Name Service header and, 405–407
    NetBIOS name representation and, 408–409
    question entries and, 409–410
    resource record compression and, 412–413
    resource records (RRs) and, 410–412
    Wait Acknowledgement message, 420
WINS. See Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
WINS client, 387
WINS database entries, 397
WINS proxy, 396
WINS server replication, 397
write-behind and read-ahead operations, 438

X
X.25, 39–42
    compared with Frame Relay, 43
    encapsulation forms of, 40–42
    overview of, 39–40
    WANs and, 29

Z
zero send window, 287
zones, DNS
    AD-integrated zones, 358
    compared with domains, 357
    definition of, 356–357
    directory-integrated zone replication, 363
    incremental zone transfers, 362–363
    reverse-lookup zones, 358
    RRs and, 374–375
    types of, 356
    zone delegation, 363–364
    zone transfer, 361–362, 372–373


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Last Updated: Friday, July 6, 2001