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Running MS-DOS® 20th Anniversary Edition
Author Van Wolverton
Pages 640
Disk N/A
Level All Levels
Published 07/17/2002
ISBN 9780735618121
Price $29.99
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Index


Special Characters
$ (Doskey replaceable parameter), 331, 474-75
$ (Prompt operator), 395-96, 474, 553-54
$T (Doskey command separator), 332
% (batch replaceable parameter), 320-21
% (Dosshell parameter), 270
%% (batch replaceable parameter), 364-66, 504-5
* (Dosshell directory operator), 261
* (wildcard character), 45, 69-70, 344-45
+ (Copy file-combining operator), 82
+ (Dosshell directory operator), 244, 261
- (Dosshell directory operator), 244, 261
. (current directory marker), 145, 153-58
. (date separator), 20
.. (parent directory marker), 145, 153-58
... (Dosshell symbol), 249
/ (date separator), 20
/? (command help parameter), 73, 512
: (batch file label operator), 342
< (redirection operator), 52, 300, 515
> (redirection operator), 54, 299, 310, 515
>> (redirection operator), 308, 515
? (wildcard character), 45, 70-71, 85-86
@ (batch display-suppression operator), 339, 435
\ (canceled command symbol), 31
\ (path name separator), 149
\ (root directory marker), 145, 149
^ (control key symbol), 33
o (piping operator), 53, 308-10, 515-16

A
accented characters, 137-38
access, file and directory. See attributes, file and directory
access, speeding disk. See disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command
adapter RAM/ROM memory, 122
Advanced Power Management (APM), 390, 550
allocation units, 47, 104
Alt-255 keys, 347, 357
Alternate key (Alt), 32, 246
Alt-F1 keys, 284
Alt-F7 keys, 332
Alt-Minus keys, 284
Alt-Plus keys, 284
Alt-Tab keys, 264
ampersand (@) as batch display-suppression operator, 339, 435 ANSI.SYS device driver
   command reference, 428
   installing, 390, 463
   Mode and, 125, 332-33, 358
anti-virus. See virus protection
APM (Advanced Power Management), 390, 550
Append command, 171-72, 428-29
application programs, 6, 175-78, 222-23. See also program files
archive attributes, 178, 179-81, 186-90
archiving. See backing up files and directories
arrow keys
   activating, 31-32
   Doskey use of, 20, 37-38
   Dosshell use of, 250-55
   Edit use of, 280
   Up Arrow, 17, 18, 20, 37
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 90, 253
Assign command, 430
associating files with programs, 251
asterisk (*), 45, 69-70, 261, 344-45
Attribute command (attrib), 178-83, 187, 431-32
attributes, file and directory
   archive status, 179-81
   changing, 178-83, 431-32
   hidden status, 181-83
   read-only status, 84, 183
   Xcopy and, 187
AUTOEXEC.400 file, 377, 406
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
   batch file commands and, 435
   CONFIG.SYS and, 376-77, 392
   creating, 323-27
   disk caches, 383-84
   memory management (see memory)
   MS-DOS installation, 377, 406
   paths, 165-66, 408, 410
   root directory requirement, 202
starting MS-DOS without, 392 AUX device name, 120
Auxiliary devices. See serial ports

B
backing up files and directories. See also restoring files and directories
   with Backup, 232-36, 432-34
   with batch files, 336-50, 362-63, 366
   developing procedures, 224
   duplicating floppies, 100-101
   with MSbackup (see MSbackup command)
   MS-DOS versions and, 233, 434
backslash character (\), 31, 145, 147
Backspace key, 18, 20-21
BACKUP.001 file, 234-35
Backup command, 232-36, 432-34. See also Restore command
BACKUPID.@@@ file, 235
BACKUP.LOG file, 233
BAS extension, 67
Basic language, 262, 555
batch files, 316. See also files
   archiving files with, 336-37, 362-63, 366
   calling other, 366-68, 438-39
   canceling, 322-23
   chaining, 354-57, 366-67
   changing command sequences in, 342-46, 508
   command reference, 435-36
   conditional execution, 340-42, 514-15
   copying files between directories with, 360-61
   creating, with Copy, 318-19
   creating, with Doskey, 329-34 (see also Doskey command)
   creating, with Edit, 279 (see also Edit command)
   creating, with Edlin, 489-95
   deleting files with, 328-29, 358-59
   displaying directories of subdirectories with, 359-60
batch files,
   displaying line spaces with Echo, 347-50, 357
   displaying long directories with, 357-58
   displaying messages with Echo, 338-39, 486-87
   displaying messages with Pause, 339, 549
   displaying messages with Remark, 319-20, 558
   displaying multiple files with, 370-71
   displaying sorted directories with, 372-74
   interactive, 368-70, 443-44
   labels, 342-43
   macros vs., 329
   MS-DOS command search order and, 316-17
   printing files with, 327-28
   repeating commands with For command, 363-66, 504-5
   repeating commands with replaceable parameters, 320-21
   searching through files with, 352-57, 371-72
   shifting command parameters, 362-63, 569
   starting MS-DOS with (see AUTOEXEC.BAT file)
   wildcard characters and, 344-45
BAT extension, 67, 317
baud rate, 128-29
blank lines, displaying, with batch files, 347-50, 357
booting MS-DOS. See starting MS-DOS
Break command, 436. See also Ctrl-Break keys
Break configuration command, 437. See also Ctrl-Break keys
Break key, 32
Buffers configuration command, 391, 437-38
built-in commands, 316
bytes, 26-27

C
caches, disk, 383-84, 570-73
Call batch command, 366-68, 438-39
capacities of disks, 7, 27, 103, 105, 106, 174, 506
case of characters, 353, 372
cd. See Change Directory command (cd, chdir)
CD-ROM drives, 546
chaining batch files, 354-57, 366-67
chains, 442
Change Code Page command (chcp), 439-40
Change Directory command (cd, chdir), 27, 146-47, 153-58, 440-41
characters. See also keys
   accented, 137-38
   ASCII, 90, 253
   case of, 353, 372
   end-of-file, 48, 133
   foreign-language (see foreign languages)
   graphics (see graphics)
   grayed, 249
   hexadecimal, 253
   replacing, with Edit, 292
   searching text for, 54-55, 304-7, 352-57, 371-72, 503-4
   system prompt definition, 395, 554
   wildcard, 45, 69-71, 344-45
character strings, 54
chcp. See Change Code Page command (chcp)
Check Disk command (chkdsk)
   checking disk condition, 111-14
   command reference, 441-43
   displaying directory structure, 166-70, 579
DoubleSpace and, 442 Check Disk command (chkdsk),
   ScanDisk and, 112, 113, 441 (see also ScanDisk command)
   Windows and, 168, 441
Choice batch command, 368-70, 435, 443-44
Clear Screen command (cls), 23, 123, 348, 445
client-server connections, 517-18
Clipboard, Edit, 290-91, 293-94
clock, system. See date; time
CLOCK$ device name, 66
cls. See Clear Screen command (cls)
clusters, 442
code pages. See also COUNTRY.TXT file; foreign languages
   changing, 439-40
   date, time, currency, and decimal formats, 454-58, 547-48
   displaying status of, 131-32, 543
   enabling graphics characters, 508-9
   keyboard layouts, 135-39, 520-23
   preparing, 541-42
   restoring, 543
   selecting, 542
colon (:), 342
color options
   Dosshell, 248
   Edit, 294-95
   Startup Menu, 529-30
COM1-COM4 device names, 120. See also serial ports
combining text files, 82-83, 453-54
COM extension, 67, 316
COM files, converting EXE files to, 497
COMMAND.COM file, 202, 239, 408, 445-46, 497, 568
Command command, 445-46
command files, 42-43. See also batch files; commands, MS-DOS; Doskey command; program files
command history. See Doskey command
command level, 16
command macros. See Doskey command
command processor. See COMMAND.COM file
command prompt. See system prompt
commands, MS-DOS, 9-10, 42-43. See also Dosshell command
   canceling, 31, 32, 34
   configuration (see CONFIG.SYS configuration file)
   entering, 16-18
   external vs. internal, 42-43
   file management, 65 (see also files)
   filter (see filter commands)
   help on, 71-73
   parameters, 28, 44
   redirecting input and output of (see input and output redirection)
   search order, 316-17
   search paths, 165-66, 548-49 (see also paths)
   sorting ouput of, 52-53, 573-74
   user-defined (see batch files; Doskey command)
   wildcard characters, 45, 69-71, 344-45
communications parameters, 128-30, 537-38
communications ports. See serial ports
Compare command (comp), 88, 446-48
comparing disks, 110-11, 469-70
comparing files
   with Compare, 88, 446-48
   with File Comparison, 88-91, 110, 499-501
compatibility, 9. See also versions, MS-DOS
compressed files, expanding MS-DOS, 498
compression, disk
   with DoubleSpace, 476-81
   with DriveSpace, 190-97, 481-86
   of floppy disks, 193-94
   of hard disks, 191-93
   memory and, 191, 480-81, 486
mounting and unmounting drives for, 194-96 compression, disk,
   MS-DOS versions and, 191
   removing, 196-97
   ScanDisk and, 192
computers
   configuring portable, 390-91, 517-18, 549-50
   
displaying information about, 546-47
condensed print, 125
CON device name, 48, 66, 119-20
CONFIG.400 file, 377, 406
CONFIG.SYS configuration file, 376-91
   AUTOEXEC.BAT and, 376-77, 392
   checking for Ctrl-C (Ctrl-Break), 437
   code-page switching (see code pages)
   command reference, 448-49
   console control, 125, 390, 428
   date and currency formats, 454-58, 547-48
   defining characteristics of disks or tapes, 481
   device drivers (see device drivers)
   disk buffers, 391, 437-38
   disk caches, 383-84, 572-73
   disk compression, 191, 480-81, 486
   emulating earlier versions of MS-DOS, 567-68
   highest drive letter, 391-92, 524
   including other configuration blocks, 515
   installing fast file access, 396-97, 499
   loading device drivers, 377, 388-90, 462-66
   loading memory-resident programs, 516
   loading MS-DOS in high memory, 380-81, 472-73
   memory management (see memory)
   menus, 393-94, 529-31, 574
   MS-DOS installation and, 377, 406
   MS-DOS options, 576
   Num Lock key state, 548
   open files, 391, 501, 503
CONFIG.SYS configuration file,
   portable computer settings, 390-91, 518, 550
   RAM disks, 384-87, 555-57, 585
   reserving memory for temporary program use, 574
   root directory requirement, 202
   specifying command processor, 568
   starting MS-DOS without, 392
confirmation options, Dosshell, 254-55
consoles. See also keyboards; screens
   changing, 458
   control program (see ANSI.SYS device driver)
   creating batch files from, 318-19
   creating text files from, 48-49
   device name, 48, 66, 119-20
   displaying status of, 131-32
CONTROL.001 file, 234-35
Control key (Ctrl), 31, 33-35, 251
conventional memory, 122, 378
Copy command
   combining text files, 82-83, 453-54
   command reference, 450-54
   copying files, 51, 78-81, 177-78
   copying files between directories, 148-49
   copying from devices to devices or text files, 133, 453
   copying text files to devices, 50, 81, 452
   creating batch files, 318-19
   creating text files, 48-49, 67-68
   installing MS-DOS files, 408-9, 410-11
copying files. See also moving files
   with Copy (see Copy command)
   with Dosshell, 251-52
   with Replace, 81, 184-86, 409, 560-61
   with Xcopy, 81, 176-77, 186-90, 588-89
copying floppy disks, 108-10
country codes. See also foreign languages
   code pages, 439-40
country codes,
   date, time, currency, and decimal formats, 454-58, 547-48
   keyboard layouts, 135-39, 520-23
   system floppy disks, 564-65
Country configuration command, 454-58
COUNTRY.SYS file, 458, 547-48
COUNTRY.TXT file, 137, 439
Ctrl-* keys, 261
Ctrl-Alt-Del keys, 33, 38
Ctrl-Alt-F1 keys, 139
Ctrl-Alt-F2 keys, 139
Ctrl-Break keys, 33, 34, 322-23, 436-37
Ctrl-Esc keys, 263-64
Ctrl-F1 keys, 284
Ctrl-Ins keys, 290
Ctrl key, 31, 33-35, 251
Ctrl-Num Lock keys, 33
Ctrl-P keys, 35
Ctrl-PrtSc keys, 33, 33, 34-35
Ctrl-T keys, 313
Ctrl-Z keys, 48, 133
CTTY command, 458
currency formats, 454-58, 547-48
current directory (.), 149
   changing, 146-47, 440-41
   marker, 145
   as system prompt, 146, 153, 175
current disk drive, 16, 22
cursor, 18, 279, 280
cursor-movement keys. See arrow keys
cut and paste, 290-91

D
data bits, 128-29
data files, 42, 251
data file search paths, 171-72, 428-29
date
   changing, 19-21, 459
   formats, 454-58, 547-48
   starting MS-DOS with, 15-16
Date command, 19-21, 72-73, 459
dblspace. See DoubleSpace command (dblspace)
DBLSPACE.SYS device driver, 191, 480-81
dead keys, 137-38
decimal formats, 454-58, 547-48
Defrag command, 174, 199-201, 397, 459-61
defragmentation, 199-201, 459-61
Delete command (del, erase), 51-52, 83-86, 461-62
Delete key (Del), 32
Delete Sentry, 208-11, 581
Delete Tracker, 208, 211-15, 581
deleting directories, 160-63, 462, 559
deleting files. See also undeleting files
   with batch files, 328-29, 358-59
   with Delete, 51-52, 83-86, 461-62
   with DelTree, 162-63, 462
   with Dosshell, 254-55
   wildcard characters and, 71
DelTree command, 162-63, 462
Device configuration command, 377, 462-65
device drivers. See also CONFIG.SYS configuration file
   loading, 377, 462-65
   loading, into reserved memory, 388-90, 465-66
Devicehigh configuration command, 380, 382, 385, 387-90, 465-66
devices, 48, 119. See also consoles; disks; display adapters; keyboards; memory; parallel ports; printers; screens; serial ports
   code-page switching (see code pages)
   controlling modes of (see Mode command)
   copying files to, 50, 81, 452
   copying from, to files or devices, 48-49, 67-68, 133, 318-19, 453
   displaying status of, 131-32, 540-41
   drivers (see device drivers)
names, 66, 119-20 devices,
   on networks, 120, 390-91, 517-18
   redirection of (see input and output redirection)
diagnostics, 546-47
dialog boxes, 252, 271
differential backups, 227
dir. See Directory command (dir)
direction keys. See arrow keys
directories, 26-28. See also files; tree-structured file systems
   backing up (see backing up files and directories)
   controlling access (see attributes, file and directory)
   copying files between (see copying files)
   creating, 142-45, 150-53, 526-27
   current (see current directory (.))
   displaying (see Directory command (dir); File List, Dosshell)
   displaying information about, 256-57
   displaying structure of, 166-70, 578-80
   joining disks to, 519
   markers, 145, 153-58
   moving files between (see moving files)
   for MS-DOS files, 27-28, 175, 201-2, 408-11
   naming, as disks, 397-98, 574-75
   path names (see paths)
   removing, 160-62, 559
   removing, with Dosshell, 254
   removing, with files, 162-63, 462
   renaming, 159-60, 544-45
   restoring (see restoring files and directories)
   root (see root directory)
   scrolling and selecting, with Dosshell, 250-55
   speeding access (see disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command)
   subdirectories, 27-28, 142, 149
   using, 147-49
Directory command (dir)
   command reference, 466-69
   directory-only subdirectories, 359-60
   displaying long directories, 53-54, 357-58
   displaying specific files or sets of files, 44-45, 54-55, 69-70
   file-only displays, 77
   multiple-directory displays, 163-65
   parameters, 74-75
   pausing displays, 28-29, 53-54, 76
   printing displays, 34-35, 54
   sorting displays, 76-77
   sorting displays with batch files, 372-74
   wide displays, 75
disk access speedup. See disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command
disk buffers, 391, 437-38
disk caches, 383-84, 570-73
Disk Compare command (diskcomp), 110-11, 469-70
Diskcopy command, 108-10, 471-72
disk drives. See disks
diskettes. See floppy disks
disk files. See files
disk operating systems. See Microsoft MS-DOS; Microsoft Windows
disks. See also floppy disks; hard disks
   changing current, 22
   checking, for errors, 192, 197-98, 563-64
   compressing (see compression, disk)
   defining characteristics of, 481
   defining highest letter for, 391-92, 524
   directory structure (see directories; files; tree-structured file systems)
   displaying information about, 256-57
   displaying status of, 111-14, 168-70, 441-43, 579
   file names and, 43, 67
   formatting (see Format command; Select command)
disks,
   installing or upgrading MS-DOS (see versions, MS-DOS)
   joining, to directories, 519
   naming directories as, 397-98, 574-75
   RAM or virtual, 384-87, 555-57, 585
   recovering files from damaged, 557-58
   reformatting, 215-18
   routing operations to different, 430
   saving recovery information, 212, 216, 531-33, 583-85
   speeding access (see disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command)
   system (see system disks)
   system prompt as current, 16
   types and capacities, 7, 27, 105, 106, 174, 506
   unformatting, 106, 217-18, 583-85
   verifying data written to, 585-86
   virus protection (see virus protection)
   volume labels (see labels, disk volume)
   volume serial numbers, 47, 104, 115
Disk Utilities Program Group, Dosshell, 262, 272-74
display adapters. See also consoles; screens
   changing display characteristics, 124-25, 534-35
   changing display columns or lines, 535-36
   Dosshell and, 248
   memory, 122
dollar sign ($), 331, 395-96, 474-75, 553-54
DOS. See Microsoft MS-DOS
Dos configuration command, 380-81, 387, 472-73
Doshelp command, 512. See also Help command
Doskey command
   canceling commands, 31
   command parameters, 330
   command reference, 473-75
Doskey command,
   creating batch files, 330-31 (see also batch files)
   creating macros, 331-33
   editing commands, 310-14
   macros vs. batch files, 329
   repeating commands, 20, 35-38
   replaceable parameters, 331-33
   saving macros, 333-34
   starting, 18
   using multiple commands, 313-14
Dosshell command, 9
   color options, 248
   command reference, 475-76
   File List (see File List, Dosshell)
   File menu, 249, 265-68
   Help menu, 246-47
   keyboard and mouse use in, 245-46
   Options menu, 254-57, 263-64
   Program List (see Program List, Dosshell)
   starting, 242-46
   starting MS-DOS with and without, 14-15
   text mode vs. graphics mode, 243
   Tree menu, 261
   View menu, 257-61
   window, parts of, 243-45
   Windows and, 242
DOSSHELL.INI file, 253
DOS subdirectory, 27-28, 175, 201-2, 408-11
dot-matrix printers. See printers
DoubleSpace command (dblspace)
   Check Disk and, 442
   command reference, 476-81
   DriveSpace and, 174, 191 (see also DriveSpace command (drvspace))
   formatting disks, 505
   memory and, 191, 480-81
   Smartdrv and, 383
Drive Parameters configuration command (drivparm), 481
drivers. See device drivers
drives. See CD-ROM drives; disks; tape drives
DriveSpace command (drvspace)
   command reference, 481-85
   compressing floppy disks, 193-94
   compressing hard disks, 191-93
   DoubleSpace and, 174, 191 (see also DoubleSpace command (dblspace))
   formatting disks, 505
   memory and, 191, 486
   mounting and unmounting drives, 194-96
   removing, 196-97
   ScanDisk and, 192
   Smartdrv and, 383
drivparm. See Drive Parameters configuration command (drivparm)
drvspace. See DriveSpace command (drvspace)
DRVSPACE.000 file, 196-97
DRVSPACE.SYS device driver, 191-92, 486
duplication. See copying files; Diskcopy command

E
Echo batch command, 338-39, 347-50, 357, 435, 486-87
Edit command
   accessing, from Dosshell, 262
   changing screen display, 294-95
   command reference, 487-89
   copying or moving text, 290-91
   copying text from another file, 293-94
   deleting text, 288
   editing files, 290-91
   entering text, 285
   exiting, 290
   inserting text, 285-86
   inserting vs. overstriking, 293
   keyboard and mouse use in, 279-81
margins, 286-87 Edit command,
   printing files, 287
   replacing text, 292
   saving files, 288-89
   searching files, 291
   selecting text, 281
   starting, 281
   Survival Guide help, 281-85
editors. See Edit command; Edlin command
Edlin command, 279, 489-95
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter), 124-25
ellipsis (.), 249
EMM386 command, 495-96
EMM386.EXE device driver, 379-81, 387-90, 496-97
end-of-file character, 48, 133
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), 124-25
enhanced keyboards, 576
Enter key, 17
environment variables, 566
erase. See Delete command (del, erase)
errorlevel values
   Backup, 433-34
   batch file testing of, 368-70, 514-15
   Replace, 561
   Restore, 562-63
Escape key (Esc), 31, 284
Exe2bin command, 497
EXE extension, 67, 316
EXE files, converting, to COM files, 497
Exit command, 245, 263, 497
Expand command, 498
expanded memory (EMS), 122, 378-79
   disk caches, 384, 572-73
   emulating IBM PS/2, 589
   enabling and disabling, 495-96
   Fastopen use of, 397
   LIM EMS, 589
   managers, 378-81, 589
   RAM disks, 386-87, 557
   simulating, with extended memory, 495-97
extended memory (XMS), 122, 378
   disk caches, 383-84, 570-72
   disk compression in, 191, 480-81, 486
   manager, 378, 513-14
   memory-resident programs in, 388, 525-26
   MS-DOS in, 380-81, 472-73
   RAM disks, 386, 556-57
   simulating expanded memory with, 495-97
extensions, filename, 26, 43, 65-67, 202
external commands, 42-43

F
F1 function key, 246, 248, 284
F3 function key, 14, 26
F5 function key, 392, 576
F6 function key, 133, 284
F7 function key, 37
F8 function key, 392, 576
F9 function key, 38, 253
F10 function key, 245
Fasthelp command, 512. See also Help command
Fastopen command, 396-97, 498-99
fc. See File Comparison command (fc)
FCBS configuration command, 501
Fdisk command, 501-2
File Comparison command (fc), 88-91, 110, 499-501
file control blocks, 501
file handles, 503
File List, Dosshell, 242
   copying files, 251-52
   deleting files, 254-55
   displaying directories, 248
   displaying directory structures, 261
   displaying files, 260-61
   displaying files in sorted order, 255-56
   displaying two directories, 258-59
   expanding and collapsing directories, 261
File List, Dosshell,
   file information options, 256-57
   File menu, 249
   finding files, 259-60
   Options menu, 254-57
   scrolling directories, 250-55
   selecting directories, 250
   selecting files, 250-51
   Tree menu, 261
   viewing file contents, 253
   view options, 257-61
file-management example, 300-312, 352-57
File menu
   Dosshell, 249, 265-68
   Edit, 488
FILEnnnn.CHK files, 114
files, 8. See also batch files; program files; text files
   associating data files with program, 251
   backing up (see backing up files and directories)
   comparing, 88-91, 446-48, 499-501
   compressing (see compression, disk)
   controlling access (see attributes, file and directory)
   converting EXE files to COM, 497
   copying (see copying files)
   defragmenting, 199-201, 459-61
   deleting (see deleting files)
   directories of, 26-28 (see also directories; tree-structured file systems)
   displaying information about, 256-57
   expanding compressed MS-DOS, 498
   finding, with Dosshell, 259-60
   fragmented, 112, 199
   moving (see moving files)
   MS-DOS as, 8
   MS-DOS temporary, 54, 310
   naming (see names, file)
   overwriting (see overwriting files)
   recovering, from damaged disks, 557-58
files,
   required in root directory, 202, 411
   restoring (see restoring files and directories)
   search paths (see paths)
   selecting, with Dosshell, 250-51
   sharing, 568
   specifying number of open, 391, 501, 503
   speeding access (see disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command)
   system, 407-8, 576-77
   types, 42-43
   undeleting (see undeleting files)
   virus protection (see virus protection)
Files configuration command, 391, 503
filter commands
   combining, 54-55, 309
   pausing displays, 49, 53-54, 308, 543-44
   redirection and, 300-302, 307-8, 310
   searching text for characters, 54-55, 304-7, 352-57, 371-72, 503-4
   sorting, 52-53, 302-4, 573-74
Find filter command, 54-55, 304-7, 352-57, 371-72, 503-4
fixed disks. See hard disks
floppy disks. See also disks
   capacities, 7, 27, 103, 105, 106, 506
   checking, for viruses, 221 (see also virus protection)
   comparing, 110-11, 469-70
   composition of, 101-2
   compressing, 193-94 (see also compression, disk)
   displaying status of, 111-14
   duplicating, 100-101, 108-10, 471-72
   formatting, 46-48, 104-8 (see also Format command; Select command)
   formatting, during backup, 233
   handling, 99-100
   information storage on, 101-4
   system (see system disks)
   unformatting, 217-18
floppy disks,
   volume labels, 104, 106, 114-15
For batch command, 363-66, 435, 504-5
foreign languages
   character sets (see code pages)
   country-specific information, 547-48
   country-specific system floppy disks, 564-65
   date, time, currency, and decimal formats, 454-58, 547-48
   keyboard layouts, 135-39, 520-23
Format command. See also Unformat command
   Backup and, 233
   command reference, 505-7
   compressed floppy disks and, 194
   floppy disks, 46-48, 104-8
   hard disks, 106-7, 407
   parameters, 105-7
   reformatting or quick formatting, 216
formatting disks. See Format command; Select command
fragmented files, 112, 199-201
full backups, 226-27
function keys. See also individual function key names
   Doskey use of, 36
   Dosshell use of, 14, 26
   Edit Survival Guide use of, 284
   end-of-file character, 48, 133

G
Goto batch command, 342-46, 435, 508
graftable. See Load Graphics Table command (graftable)
graphics
   enabling display of, 508-9
   enabling printing of, 134-35, 509-11
Graphics command, 134-35, 509-11
graphics mode, 243
grayed characters, 249
greater-than symbol (>), 54, 299, 307-8, 310, 515

H
hard disks. See also disks
   backing up (see backing up files and directories)
   capacities, 7, 27, 174
   checking, for viruses, 219-21 (see also virus protection)
   compressing, 191-93 (see also compression, disk)
   configuring, 501-2
   defragmenting files, 199-201, 459-61
   directory structure (see directories; files; tree-structured file systems)
   formatting, 106-7, 407 (see also Format command)
   installing applications, 175-78
   installing or upgrading MS-DOS (see versions, MS-DOS)
   installing selected files, 184-90
   maintenance tips, 202-3
   management tips, 174, 201-3
   MS-DOS files on, 201-2
   partitions (see partitions, hard disk)
   rebuilding, 218 (see also Unformat command)
   restoring (see restoring files and directories)
   saving recovery information for, 216, 531-33, 583-85
   speeding access (see disk buffers; disk caches; Fastopen command)
hardware, 6. See also devices; disks; display adapters; keyboards; printers
Help command, 71-73, 512-13
help features
   Dosshell, 246-47
   Dosshell program items, 269
   Edit, 281-85
   MSbackup, 226
   MS-DOS commands, 71-73, 512-13
Hewlett-Packard Laserjet Plus printer, 23, 35 hexadecimal format, 253
hidden attributes, 178, 181-83, 187
high memory area (HMA), 122. See also extended memory (XMS)
   disk compression in, 191, 480-81, 486
   MS-DOS in, 380-81, 472-73
HIMEM.SYS device driver, 379, 381, 387, 513-14
history, command. See Doskey command
HLP extension, 67

I
IBMBIO.COM and IBMDOS.COM files, 239, 576
IBM-compatible computers, 9
IBM-compatible keyboards, 17, 30, 36
IBM printers, 134-35
IBM PS/2 computers, 589
If batch command, 340-42, 435, 514-15
Include configuration command, 515
incremental backups, 227
index, Dosshell help, 247
initializing disks. See Format command; Select command
input, standard, 300, 515-16
input and output redirection
   appending redirected output to files, 308
   command input, 300
   command output, 299
   command output to parallel printer, 54, 170, 307-8
   command reference, 515-16
   filter commands and, 300-302, 307-8, 310 (see also filter commands)
   parallel printer output to serial printers, 130-31, 540
   piping and, 53-54, 308-10
   redirecting both input and output, 307-8
inserting vs. overstriking text, 293
Install configuration command, 397, 516 installing or upgrading MS-DOS. See versions, MS-DOS
Interlnk command, 517
INTERLNK.EXE device driver, 390-91, 517-18
internal commands, 42-43
international support. See foreign languages
Intersvr command, 518
IO.SYS file, 236, 576

J-K
Join command, 519
Keyboard command (keyb), 135-39, 520-22
Keyboard command (keybxx), 522-23
keyboards. See also consoles; keys
   blocking functions of enhanced, 576
   changing layouts of, 135-39, 520-23
   control program (see ANSI.SYS device driver)
   country-specific system floppy disks and, 564-65
   device name, 48, 66, 119-20
   Dosshell use of, 245-46, 250, 251
   Edit use of, 279-81
   PC-compatible, 17, 30, 36
   printing from, 133
   repeat rate, 123-24, 536-37
KEYBOARD.SYS file, 138
keybxx. See Keyboard command (keybxx)
keys. See also characters; keyboards
   Alternate, 32, 246
   arrow (see arrow keys)
   Backspace, 18, 20-21
   Break, 32
   Control, 31, 33-35, 251
   dead, 137-38
   Delete, 32
   Doskey use of, 35-38, 311
   Dosshell use of, 250, 263-64, 270
Edit use of, 290-91 keys,
   Enter, 17
   Escape, 31, 284
   function (see function keys)
   Num Lock, 31-32, 548
   Pause, 32, 33
   screen-printing, 22-23, 33, 127
   Shift, 31, 251, 281
   Spacebar, 251
   special, 17-18, 20-21, 30-38
   Tab, 245
   Up Arrow, 17, 18, 20, 37

L
Label command, 114-15, 523-24
labels, batch file, 342-43, 508
labels, disk volume
   changing or deleting, 114-15, 523-24
   displaying, 115, 586
   formatting and, 47, 104, 106
language, Basic, 262, 555
languages, foreign. See foreign languages
laser printers, 23, 35, 126
Lastdrive configuration command, 391-92, 524
less-than symbol (<), 52, 300, 515
lh. See Loadhigh command (lh)
LIM EMS (Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification), 589. See also expanded memory (EMS)
line editor, 489-95
line spaces, displaying, with batch files, 347-50, 357
Loadfix command, 524
Load Graphics Table command (graftabl), 508-9
Loadhigh command (lh), 380, 382, 387-88, 525-26
loading MS-DOS. See starting MS-DOS
look-ahead buffers, 391, 437-38
LPT1-LPT3 device names, 120. See also parallel ports

M
macros. See Doskey command
maintenance, hard disk, 202-3
Make Directory command (md, mkdir), 144-45, 150-53, 526-27
margins, Edit, 286-87
markers, directory, 145, 153-58
md. See Make Directory command (md, mkdir)
mem. See Memory command (mem)
MemMaker command, 382-83, 529
memory
   adapter, 122
   balancing, during MS-DOS installation, 405-6
   conventional, 122, 378
   disk buffers, 391, 437-38
   disk caches, 383-84, 570-73
   disk compression and, 191, 480-81, 486
   displaying usage of, 121-23, 527-28
   expanded (see expanded memory (EMS))
   extended (see extended memory (XMS))
   loading programs above first 64 KB of, 524
   managers, 378-81, 495-97, 513-14, 589
   optimizing use of, 382-83, 529
   RAM disks, 384-87
   reserved or upper (see reserved memory)
   reserving, for temporary program use, 574
   running MS-DOS in high memory area, 380-81, 472-73
   types of, 122, 378-81
Memory command (mem), 121-23, 381, 527-28
memory-resident programs, 263, 388, 516, 525-26
Menucolor configuration command, 529-30 Menudefault configuration command, 530
Menuitem configuration command, 530-31
menu systems, 9
   of configurations, 13, 393-94, 529-31, 574
   Dosshell (see Program List, Dosshell)
   interactive batch files as, 368-70
messages
   displaying, with Echo, 338-39, 347-50, 357, 435, 486-87
   displaying, with Pause, 339, 435, 549
   displaying, with Remark, 319-20, 348, 436, 558
Microsoft Anti-Virus command (msav). See also Vsafe command
   checking floppy disks, 221
   checking for unknown viruses, 221-22
   checking hard disks, 219-21
   command line parameters, 223
   command reference, 545-46
   updating software using, 222-23
Microsoft Backup. See MSbackup command
Microsoft CD Extension. See MS cd extension command (mscdex)
Microsoft Diagnostics command (msd), 546-47
Microsoft MS-DOS
   commands (see commands, MS-DOS)
   configuration (see CONFIG.SYS configuration file)
   devices (see devices)
   disk management (see disks; floppy disks; hard disks)
   as disk operating system, 6-10
   DOS subdirectory for, 27-28, 175, 201-2, 408-11
   editors (see Edit command; Edlin command)
   file management (see directories; files; tree-structured file systems)
installing or upgrading (see versions, MS-DOS) Microsoft MS-DOS,
   international support (see foreign languages)
   memory management (see memory)
   memory-resident programs, 263, 388, 516, 525-26
   optimization (see optimization)
   QBasic, 262, 555
   root directory files, 202, 411
   running, in high memory, 380-81, 472-73
   shell (see Dosshell command)
   starting (see starting MS-DOS)
   system prompt (see system prompt)
   temporary files, 54, 310
   virus protection (see virus protection)
Microsoft Windows
   Check Disk and, 168, 441
   Dosshell and, 242
   MSbackup for, 232
   opening screen, 13
   starting MS-DOS without, 15
   Undelete for, 206
   WINA20.386 file, 576
minus sign (-), 244, 261
Mirror command, 212, 216, 531-33, 584
MIRROR.FIL file, 217, 531-32
mkdir. See Make Directory command (md, mkdir)
Mode command, 119
   ANSI.SYS and, 125, 332-33, 358
   changing display characteristics, 124-25, 534-35
   changing display columns or lines, 535-36
   changing keyboard repeat rate, 123-24, 536-37
   changing parallel printer width and spacing, 125-28, 328, 539-40
   command reference, 534-43
   connecting serial printers, 130-31, 540
   displaying and changing code-page status, 543
Mode command,
   displaying device status, 131-32, 540-41
   preparing code pages, 541-42
   restoring code pages, 543
   selecting code pages, 542
   setting communications parameters, 128-30, 537-38
More filter command, 49, 53-54, 308, 543-44
mounting drives, 194-96
mouse
   Dosshell use of, 245-46, 250, 251, 252, 254
   Edit use of, 279-81
   MSbackup use of, 228, 229
Move command, 83, 158-60, 201, 346, 544-45
moving files. See also copying files
   with batch files, 360-61
   with Dosshell, 252
   with Move, 83, 158-59, 201, 544-45
msav. See Microsoft Anti-Virus command (msav)
MSbackup command
   backing up files, 230-31
   backup types, 226-27
   command reference, 546
   configuration, 224-26
   online help, 226
   restoring files, 231-32
   screen elements, 227-28
   selecting files, 228-30
MS cd extension command (mscdex), 546
msd. See Microsoft Diagnostics command (msd)
MS-DOS. See Microsoft MS-DOS
MSDOS.SYS file, 239, 576

N
names, device, 66, 119-20
names, directory, 159-60
names, disk volume. See labels, disk volume
names, file. See also paths
   changing, 86-87, 559-60
   of data files, 202
   special, 66-67, 202
   valid, 26, 43, 65-67
national language support, 547-48. See also foreign languages
National Language Support Function command (nlsfunc), 547-48
networks, 120, 390-91, 517-18, 568
nlsfunc. See National Language Support Function command (nlsfunc)
Numlock configuration command, 548
Num Lock key, 31-32, 548

O
online help, 71, 226, 282, 512. See also help features
operating systems. See Microsoft MS-DOS; Microsoft Windows
optimization
   disk buffers, 391, 437-38
   disk caches, 383-84, 570-73
   disk compression (see compression, disk)
   file and directory access, 396-97, 498-99
   file defragmentation, 199-201, 459-61
   memory, 382-83, 529 (see also memory)
   RAM disks, 384-87, 555-57, 585
Options menu
   Dosshell, 254-57, 263-64
   Edit, 489
output. See also input and output redirection; printing; screens
   command, 52
   standard, 299, 515-16
overstriking vs. inserting text, 293
overwriting files
with Copy, 79, 82, 451, 454 overwriting files,
   with Move, 158-59, 545
   with Replace, 186
OVL extension, 67

P
parallel ports, 120. See also printers
   redirecting output to serial ports, 130-31, 540
parameters
   command, 28, 44
   command, Dosshell program item, 269-70
   communications, 128-30, 537-38
   replaceable (see replaceable parameters)
   shifting, in batch files, 362-63, 569
parent directory (..), 145, 153-58
parity, 128-29
partitions, hard disk
   configuring, 501-2
   rebuilding, 218, 583-85
   saving recovery information, 212, 216, 531-33
PARTNSAV.FIL file, 584
passwords, Dosshell, 267
paste, cut and, 290-91
Path command, 165-66, 171, 324-26, 548-49
paths
   AUTOEXEC.BAT and, 324-26, 408, 410
   command search, 165-66, 548-49
   data search, 171-72, 428-29
   directory names and, 145-47, 149
   Dosshell program items, 270
Pause batch command, 339, 435, 549
Pause key, 32, 33
pause messages, Dosshell program item, 270
PC-compatible keyboards, 17, 30, 36
PCTRACKR.DEL file, 208, 212, 532, 582
percent sign (%) as batch replaceable parameter, 320-21
percent signs (%%) as batch replaceable parameter, 364-66
period (.) as date separator, 20
permanent commands, 42-43
phone-list example, 300-312, 352-57
piping, 53-54, 308-10, 515-16
plus sign (+), 82, 244, 261
pop-up programs, 263, 388, 516, 525-26
portable computers, configuring, 390-91, 517-18, 549-50
ports. See parallel ports; serial ports
Power command, 549-50
POWER.EXE device driver, 390-91, 550
Print command, 50, 91-95, 551-53
printers. See also printing
   changing width and spacing for parallel, 125-28, 328, 539-40
   connecting serial, 130-31, 540
   copying files to, 81
   copying from keyboard to, 133
   device names, 50, 54, 92, 120
   graphics support for, 134-35, 510
   laser, 23, 35, 126
   redirecting command output to, 170
printing. See also printers
   command output, 54, 170, 307-8
   graphics, 134-35, 509-11
   from keyboards, 133
   screens, 22-23, 33, 34-35, 127
   text files, in queues, 50, 91-95, 551-53
   text files, with batch files, 327-28
   text files, with Copy, 50, 81
   text files, with Edit, 287
print queue, 91. See also Print command
Print Screen key (PrtSc, Print Scrn), 23, 33, 127
PRN device name, 50, 54, 92, 120. See also parallel ports
program files, 6, 42. See also commands, MS-DOS; files; Program List, Dosshell
   associating data files with, 251
converting EXE programs to COM, 497 program files,
   displaying memory use by, 121-23, 381
   expanding compressed MS-DOS, 498
   installing applications, 175-78
   installing MS-DOS, 564, 566-67
   loading, above first 64 KB of memory, 524
   loading, into reserved memory, 388, 516, 525-26
   MS-DOS as, 6
   reserving memory for temporary use by, 574
   search paths (see paths)
   starting, from Dosshell, 262-63
   switching between, 263-64
   updating, with Microsoft Anti-Virus, 222-23 (see also Microsoft Anti-Virus command (msav))
program groups, 262
   adding, 268-69
   deleting, 274-75
   Disk Utilities, 272-74
   selecting, 264-65
program items, 262
   adding, 265-66
   changing, 266-67
   controlling pause message, 270
   deleting, 267-68
   designing dialog boxes, 271
   specifying parameters, 269-70
   specifying paths, 270
   specifying shortcut keys, 270
   testing, 271-72
Program List, Dosshell, 243
   adding program groups, 268-69
   adding program items, 265-66
   changing program items, 266-67
   controlling pause messages, 270
   deleting program groups, 274-75
   deleting program items, 267-68
   designing dialog boxes, 271
   Disk Utilities Program Group, 272-74
   File menu, 265-68
Program List, Dosshell,
   selecting program group, 264-65
   specifying command parameters, 269-70
   specifying paths, 270
   specifying shortcut keys, 270
   starting programs, 262-63
   switching programs, 263-64
   testing program items, 271-72
prompt, system. See system prompt
Prompt command, 39, 153, 324-26, 395-96, 553-54
properties, Dosshell program item, 266-67
PrtSc key, 23, 33, 127
PS/2 computers, 589

Q
QBasic command, 262, 555
question mark character (?), 45, 70-71, 85-86
queue, print, 91. See also Print commmand
quick formatting disks, 106, 216, 507

R
RAM (random access memory), 378
RAM disks, 384-87, 555-57, 585
RAMDRIVE.SYS device driver, 384-87, 555-57, 585
rd. See Remove Directory command (rd, rmdir)
read-only attributes, 84, 178, 183
rebooting MS-DOS, 32, 33, 38
Recover command, 557-58
recovering deleted files. See undeleting files
redirection. See input and output redirection
reformatting disks, 106, 216, 507
Remark batch command (rem), 319-20, 348, 436, 558
Remove Directory command (rd, rmdir), 160-62, 559
Rename command (ren), 86-87, 559-60
renaming directories, 159-60
replaceable parameters
   batch files, 320-21, 364-66
   Doskey macros, 331-33
Replace command, 81, 184-86, 409, 560-61
rerouting. See input and output redirection
reserved memory, 122, 378
   enabling, 387, 495-97
   loading device drivers into, 388-90, 465-66
   loading programs into, 388, 525-26
   managing, 380-81, 387-90
resizing Help windows, 284-85
restarting MS-DOS, 32, 33, 38
Restore command, 237-39, 561-63. See also Backup command
restoring files and directories. See also backing up files and directories
   with MSbackup, 231-32, 546
   with Restore, 237-39, 561-63
reverse slash character (\), 31
rmdir. See Remove Directory command (rd, rmdir)
root directory, 142, 149
   marker, 145, 149
   required MS-DOS files, 202, 411

S
ScanDisk command, 174, 197-98, 563-64
   Check Disk and, 112, 113, 441 (see also Check Disk command (chkdsk))
   DriveSpace and, 192
screens. See also consoles; display adapters
   changing, in Dosshell, 248
   changing, in Edit, 294-95
clearing, 23, 123, 348, 445 screens,
   control program (see ANSI.SYS device driver)
   device name, 48, 66, 119-20
   displaying graphics characters, 508-9
   pausing displays, 49, 53-54, 308, 543-44
   printing, 22-23, 33, 34-35, 127
   printing graphics images, 134-35, 509-11
scroll bar, 250
searching text for characters, 54-55, 304-7, 352-57, 371-72, 503-4
Search menu, Edit, 488-89
search paths. See paths
sectors, 102-3, 112
Select command, 405-6, 564-65
serial numbers, volume, 47, 104, 115
serial ports, 81, 119
   device names, 120
   displaying status of, 131-32
   redirecting parallel port output to, 130-31, 540
   setting communications parameters, 128-30, 537-38
serial printers, 130-31, 540
server-client connections, 517-18
Set command, 468, 566
Setup command, 404-5, 566-67, 578
SETVER.EXE device driver, 567
Set Version command (setver), 567-68
Share command, 568
Shell configuration command, 568
shell programs, 14-16, 242. See also Dosshell command
Shift batch command, 362-63, 436, 569
Shift-Del keys, 291
Shift-Enter keys, 264
Shift-F8 keys, 251
Shift-F9 keys, 245
Shift-Ins keys, 290-91
Shift keys, 31, 251, 281
Shift-Print Screen keys, 23, 33, 35, 127, 134-35
Shift-Tab keys, 245
shortcut keys
   Dosshell, 250, 270
   Edit, 290-91
slash (/) as date separator, 20
Smartdrv command, 383-84, 570-72
SMARTDRV.EXE device driver, 572
SMARTDRV.SYS device driver, 383-84, 572-73
software, 6, 175-78, 222-23. See also program files
Sort filter command, 52-53, 302-4, 573-74
sorting
   directory displays, 76-77
   directory displays in Dosshell, 255-56
   directory displays with batch files, 372-74
   text lines, 52-53, 302-4, 573-74
Spacebar key, 251
special keys, 17-18, 20-21, 30-38. See also keys
spooling. See Print command
Stacks configuration command, 574
standard input, 300, 515-16
standard output, 299, 515-16
starting MS-DOS. See also system prompt
   with AUTOEXEC.BAT, 323-27
   with date and time requests, 15-16
   with (or without) Dosshell, 14-15 (see also Dosshell command)
   from floppy disk, 12
   in high memory, 380-81, 472-73
   with menu of configurations, 13, 393-94, 529-31, 574
   restarting, 32, 33, 38
   with shell programs, 16
   without Windows, 15
Startup Menu, 13, 393-94, 529-31, 574
stop bits, 128-29
strings, 54
subdirectories, 27-28, 142, 149. See also directories
Submenu configuration command, 574 Substitute command (subst), 397-98, 574-75
Supplemental Disk, 242, 475, 489, 497, 519, 531
Survival Guide, Edit, 281-85
Switches configuration command, 576
syntax, command, 73
sys. See System command (sys)
SYS extension, 67
system attributes, 178, 187
system clock. See date; time
System command (sys), 407-8, 576-77
system configuration. See CONFIG.SYS configuration file
system date. See date
system disks
   copying system files, 407-8, 576-77
   country-specific floppy disks, 564-65
   formatting (see Format command; Select command)
   starting MS-DOS from, 12, 388
system files, 407-8, 576-77
system memory. See memory
system messages. See messages
system programs, 6
system prompt
   accessing, from Dosshell, 245, 262-63
   AUTOEXEC.BAT and, 324-26
   changing, 39, 153, 395-96, 553-54
   current directory as, 146, 153, 175
   current drive as, 16
system setup. See starting MS-DOS; versions, MS-DOS
system shutdown, 23
system time. See time

T
Tab key, 245
tape drives, 481
Task Swapper, Dosshell, 263-64
telephone file example, 300-312, 352-57 temporary commands, 42-43
temporary files, MS-DOS, 54, 310
terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) programs, 263, 388, 516, 525-26
text files, 42. See also batch files; files
   appending redirected output to, 308
   combining, 82-83, 453-54
   copying (see copying files)
   creating, with Copy, 48-49, 67-68
   creating, with Edit (see Edit command)
   creating, with Edlin, 279, 489-95
   deleting (see deleting files)
   printing, in queues, 50, 91-95, 551-53
   printing, with batch files, 327-28
   printing, with Copy, 50, 81
   searching for characters in, 54-55, 304-7, 352-57, 371-72, 503-4
   sorting lines, 52-53, 573-74
   viewing contents of, with batch files, 370-71
   viewing contents of, with Dosshell, 253
   viewing contents of, with Type, 49-50, 77-78, 580
text mode, 14, 243
time
   changing, 21-22, 577-78
   formats, 454-58, 547-48
   starting MS-DOS with, 15-16
Time command, 21-22, 577-78
tracks, 102-3
Tree command, 166-70, 578-80
Tree menu, Dosshell, 261
tree-structured file systems. See also directories
   adding levels to, 150-60
   creating, 143-49
   defining directories, 142-43
   displaying structure of, 166-70, 578-80
   managing, 160-72
TSR (terminate and stay resident) programs, 263, 388, 516, 525-26
Type command, 49-50, 77-78, 580

U
UMBs (upper memory blocks). See reserved memory
uncompressing disks, 196-97. See also compression, disk
unconditional format, 106, 507
Undelete command, 71, 206-15, 580-83
undeleting files, 206-15. See also deleting files
   command reference, 580-83
   delete tracking, 211-15, 531-33
   levels of protection, 207-11
Unformat command, 106, 217-18, 583-85. See also Format command
Uninstall command, 405
unmounting disk drives, 194-96
Up Arrow key, 17, 18, 20, 37. See also arrow keys
updating software using Microsoft Anti-Virus, 222-23
upgrading MS-DOS. See versions, MS-DOS
upper memory blocks (UMBs). See reserved memory
user-defined commands. See batch files; Doskey command

V
variables, environment, 566
VDISK.SYS device driver, 384-87, 555-57, 585
ver. See Version command (ver)
Verify command, 585
Version command (ver), 18-19, 394, 585-86
versions, MS-DOS, 8
   backup files, 233, 434
   checking disk condition, 112, 113
   choosing startup commands, 392-93
   directory listings, 49
   disk compression, 191
displaying version numbers, 18-19, 394, 585 versions, MS-DOS,
   Doskey, 329
   Dosshell, 242
   DOS subdirectory, 28
   editors, 279
   emulating earlier, 567, 567-68
   floppy disk duplication, 109
   hard disk management, 174
   help features, 71
   installation commands, 404, 404-6, 564, 566-67
   installing or upgrading to version 3, 407-11
   installing or upgrading to version 4, 405-6
   installing or upgrading to version 5 or later, 404-5
   memory management features, 379
   overwriting files (see overwriting files)
   time formats, 21
   Xcopy and file attributes, 187
Video Graphics Array (VGA), 124-25
View menu, Dosshell, 257-61
virtual disks. See RAM disks
virus protection, 218-24
   checking floppy disks, 221
   checking for unknown viruses, 221-22
   checking hard disks, 219-21
   command line parameters, 223
   constant protection with Vsafe, 223-24, 586-87
   Microsoft Anti-Virus command reference, 545-46
   updating software, 222-23
Volume command (vol), 115, 586
volume file, compressed, 193
volume labels. See labels, disk volume
volume serial numbers, 47, 104, 115
Vsafe command, 223-24, 586-87. See also Microsoft Anti-Virus command (msav)

W
wildcard characters, 45, 69-71, 344-45
WINA20.386 file, 576
windows
   parts of Dosshell, 243-45
   sizing Edit help, 284-85
   switching Edit, 284
Windows (operating system). See Microsoft Windows
word processing. See Edit command

X
Xcopy command, 81, 176-77, 186-90, 588-89
XMA2EMS.SYS device driver, 589
XMAEM.SYS device driver, 589



Last Updated: August 7, 2002
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