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Microsoft® Windows® 2000 TCP/IP Protocols and Services Technical Reference
Author Thomas Lee and Joseph Davies
Pages 576
Disk 1 Companion CD(s)
Level Int/Adv
Published 01/05/2000
ISBN 9780735605565
ISBN-10 0-7356-0556-4
Price(USD) $49.99
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Table of Contents

Tables xv
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Introduction xxiii
CHAPTER 1 Local Area Network (LAN) Technologies 3
    LAN Encapsulations 3
    Ethernet 4
        Ethernet II4
        IEEE 802.39
        IEEE 802.3 SNAP11
        Special Bits on Ethernet MAC Addresses14
    Token Ring 15
        IEEE 802.516
        IEEE 802.5 SNAP19
        Special Bits on Token Ring MAC Addresses21
    FDDI 23
        FDDI Frame Format23
        FDDI SNAP26
        Special Bits on FDDI MAC Addresses28
    Summary 28
CHAPTER 2 Wide Area Network (WAN) Technologies 29
    WAN Encapsulations 29
    Point-to-Point Encapsulation 30
        PPP Multilink Protocol36
    X.25 39
        X.25 Encapsulation40
    Frame Relay 42
        Frame Relay Encapsulation44
    ATM 46
        The ATM Cell47
        ATM Architecture49
        Multiprotocol Encapsulation with AAL554
    Summary 55
CHAPTER 3 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 57
    Overview of ARP 57
        The ARP Cache58
        Updating the MAC Address60
        Windows 2000 ARP Registry Settings60
    ARP Frame Structure 62
        ARP Request and ARP Reply Example64
    Gratuitous ARP and Duplicate IP Address Detection 67
        IP Address Conflict Detection67
        The Gratuitous ARP and Address Conflict Exchange68
    Inverse ARP (InARP) 69
    Proxy ARP 70
    Summary 72
CHAPTER 4 Internet Protocol (IP) Basics 75
    Introduction to IP 75
        IP Services75
        IP MTU77
    The IP Datagram 78
    The IP Header 78
        Header Length79
        Type Of Service80
        Total Length83
        Fragment Offset83
        Time To Live83
        Header Checksum86
        Source Address86
        Destination Address86
        Options and Padding86
    Fragmentation 87
        Fragmentation Fields87
        Fragmentation Example89
        Reassembly Example91
        Fragmenting a Fragment93
        Avoiding Fragmentation93
    IP Options 96
        End Of Option List97
        No Operation98
        Record Route98
        Strict and Loose Source Routing100
        IP Router Alert103
        Internet Timestamp104
    Summary 106
CHAPTER 5 Internet Protocol (IP) Addressing 107
    Types of IP Addresses 107
    Expressing IP Addresses 107
        Converting from Binary to Decimal108
        Converting from Decimal to Binary109
        IP Addresses in the IP Header109
    Unicast IP Addresses 109
        A History Lesson: IP Address Classes110
        Rules for Enumerating Network IDs112
        Rules for Enumerating Host IDs112
        Subnets and the Subnet Mask113
        How to Subnet117
        Variable-Length Subnetting125
        Supernetting and Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)128
        Public and Private Addresses131
        Microsoft Windows 2000 Automatic Private IP Addressing134
    IP Broadcast Addresses 134
        Network Broadcast134
        Subnet Broadcast135
        All-Subnets-Directed Broadcast135
        Limited Broadcast135
    IP Multicast Addresses 136
        Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses137
    Summary 138
CHAPTER 6 Internet Protocol (IP) Routing 139
    Introduction to IP Routing 139
        Direct and Indirect Deliveries139
    Types of Links 140
        Non-Broadcast Multiple Access142
    The IP Routing Table 143
        Types of Routes144
        Route Determination Process145
    The Microsoft Windows 2000 IP Routing Table 146
        Multihomed Nodes148
        Maintaining the Microsoft Windows 2000 IP Routing Table148
    IP Routing from Sending Host to Destination 151
        Sending Host Forwarding Process151
        IP Router Forwarding Process151
        Destination Host Receiving Process152
    IP Routing Infrastructure Overview 153
        Single-Path vs. Multi-Path154
        Class-Based vs. Classless155
        Flat vs. Hierarchical156
        Static vs. Dynamic157
        Single vs. Multiple Autonomous Systems161
    Routing Utilities 161
    Summary 162
CHAPTER 7 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 163
    ICMP Message Structure 164
    ICMP Messages 165
        ICMP Echo/Echo Reply165
        ICMP Destination Unreachable167
        Path MTU Discovery171
        Windows 2000 Registry Settings for PMTU174
        ICMP Source Quench174
        ICMP Redirect176
        ICMP Router Discovery178
        ICMP Time Exceeded181
        ICMP Parameter Problem182
    PING Utility 184
        PING Options184
    TRACERT Utility 186
        TRACERT Options189
    PATHPING Utility 189
        PATHPING Options190
    Summary 190
CHAPTER 8 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 191
    Introduction to IP Multicast and IGMP 191
        IP Multicasting Overview191
        Host Support192
        Router Support194
        The Multicast-Enabled IP Internetwork195
    IGMP Message Structure 196
        IGMP Version 1 (IGMPv1)197
        IGMP Version 2 (IGMPv2)200
    Microsoft Windows 2000 and IGMP 204
        TCP/IP Protocol204
        The Routing and Remote Access Service204
    Summary 207
CHAPTER 9 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 209
    Chapter Contents 210
    Introduction to IPv6 211
        Nodes, Routers, Hosts, and Interfaces211
        Links, Neighbors, Link MTUs, and Link Layer Addresses212
        Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast Addresses212
    Addressing 212
        Text Representation of IPv6 Addresses212
        Unicast Addresses213
        Anycast Addresses216
        Multicast Addresses216
        Neighbor Discovery217
    IPv6 Header Format and Routing Mechanisms 219
        Hop-by-Hop Options Header221
        Destination Options Header221
        Routing Header222
        Fragment Header222
        Authentication Header223
    Transition Mechanisms 224
        Dual-Stack Implementation224
        IPv6 Over IPv4 Tunneling224
    Summary 224
CHAPTER 10 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 227
    Introduction to User Datagram Protocol 227
        Uses for UDP228
    The UDP Message 228
    The UDP Header 229
        The UDP Pseudo Header230
    UDP Ports 231
    Summary 234
CHAPTER 11 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Basics 235
    Introduction to TCP 235
    The TCP Segment 236
    The TCP Header 237
    TCP Ports 239
    TCP Flags 242
    The TCP Pseudo Header 243
    TCP Urgent Data 244
    TCP Options 246
        End Of Option List and No Operation246
        Maximum Segment Size Option247
        TCP Window Scale Option249
        Selective Acknowledgment Option251
        TCP Timestamps Option255
    Summary 258
CHAPTER 12 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Connections 259
    The TCP Connection 259
    TCP Connection Establishment 260
        Segment 1: The Synchronize (SYN) Segment260
        Segment 2: The SYN-ACK Segment262
        Segment 3: The ACK Segment263
        Result of TCP Connection Establishment Process265
    TCP Half-Open Connections 266
    TCP Connection Maintenance 269
    TCP Connection Termination 270
        Segment 1271
        Segment 2272
        Segment 3273
        Segment 4274
    TCP Connection Reset 275
    TCP Connection States 277
        Controlling TCP Connection Terminations in Microsoft Windows 2000279
    Summary 280
CHAPTER 13 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Data Flow 281
    Basic TCP Data Flow Behavior 281
    TCP Acknowledgments 281
        Delayed Acknowledgments282
        Cumulative for Contiguous Data282
        Selective for Non-Contiguous Data283
    TCP Sliding Windows 284
        Send Window284
        Receive Window288
        Microsoft Windows 2000 Maximum Receive Window Size290
    Small Segments 293
        The Nagle Algorithm293
        Silly Window Syndrome294
    Sender-Side Flow Control 295
        Slow Start Algorithm296
        Congestion Avoidance Algorithm298
    Summary 300
CHAPTER 14 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Retransmission and Time-Out 301
    Retransmission Time-Out and Round-Trip Time 301
        Congestion Collapse302
    Retransmission Behavior 303
        Retransmission Behavior for New Connections305
        Dead Gateway Detection306
        Using the Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) TCP Option307
    Calculating the RTO 308
        Using the TCP Timestamps Option309
    Karn's Algorithm 313
        Karn's Algorithm and the Timestamps Option315
    Fast Retransmit 315
        Fast Recovery317
    Summary 317
CHAPTER 15 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service 321
    Chapter Contents 322
    Overview to DHCP in Windows 2000 322
        What Is DHCP?322
        DHCP Overview and Key Terms322
        How DHCP Works328
    DHCP Messages 332
        General Message Format332
    DHCP Options 347
        What Are DHCP Options?347
        Options Supported by Windows 2000348
    Summary 350
CHAPTER 16 Domain Name Service (DNS) 351
    Chapter Contents 352
    Overview to DNS in Microsoft Windows 2000 352
        What Is DNS?352
        Key DNS Terms353
    How DNS Works 367
        Configuring DNS Client Functions367
        Resolving Names368
        Resolving Aliases369
        Dynamically Updating DNS370
        Transferring Zone Information372
    DNS Resource Records 373
        What Are Resource Records?373
        Resource Records Supported by Windows 2000375
    DNS Messages 377
        DNS Messages377
        Name-Query Message382
        Name-Query Response Message383
        Reverse-Name Query Message383
        Name Update Message383
        Name Update Response Message384
    Summary 384
CHAPTER 17 Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) 385
    Chapter Contents 386
    Overview of WINS in Windows 2000 387
        What Is WINS?387
        Key WINS Terms387
    How WINS Works 398
        Registering NetBIOS Names398
        Resolving NetBIOS Name Registration Conflicts400
        Releasing NetBIOS Names401
        Resolving NetBIOS Names401
        Refreshing NetBIOS Names403
        Determining Adapter Status403
    NetBIOS Name Service Messages 404
        Name Service Header405
        NetBIOS Name Representation408
        Question Entries409
        Resource Records (RRs)410
        Resource Record Name Compression412
        Name Registration Message413
        Positive Name Registration Response414
        Negative Name Registration Response414
        Name Refresh Message416
        Name Release Request Message416
        Name Release Response Message417
        Name Query Request Message418
        Positive Name Query Response Message419
        Negative Name Response Message419
        Wait Acknowledgment Message420
    Summary 421
CHAPTER 18 File and Printer Sharing 423
    Overview 423
    Chapter Contents 423
    Introduction to Internet Printing 423
        IPP Operation424
        IPP Specifications426
    Introduction to CIFS 434
        CIFS Operation434
    Summary 439
CHAPTER 19 Internet Information Server (IIS) and the Internet Protocols 441
    Chapter Contents 441
    HTTP 441
        Introduction and Terminology441
        HTTP Operation443
        HTTP Messages444
        Request Messages445
        Response Messages446
        HTTP Codings458
        HTTP Content Negotiation459
        HTTP Caching460
    FTP 461
        Introduction and Terminology461
        FTP Operation462
        FTP Data464
        Connections and Transmission Modes465
        FTP Commands and Responses467
    SMTP 468
        Introduction and Terminology468
        SMTP Operation469
        SMTP Commands471
        SMTP Replies474
    Summary 475
CHAPTER 20 Securing IP Communications with IP Security (IPSec) 477
    Chapter Contents 478
        IPSec Overview478
        How IPSec Works483
        Authentication Header (AH) Details485
        Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Details487
    Summary 490
CHAPTER 21 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 491
    Chapter Contents 491
    Overview of Virtual Private Networks 492
    What Is a VPN? 492
        VPN Clients and Servers493
        VPN Protocols493
        VPN Authentication497
        Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)498
        VPN Address Assignment498
        VPN Data Compression499
        VPN Data Encryption499
    Introduction to Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) 499
        Installation of PPTP500
        PPTP Encapsulation500
        PPTP Encryption501
    Introduction to Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) 501
        Installation of L2TP501
        L2TP Encapsulation502
        L2TP Encryption503
    Summary 503
Glossary 505
Bibliography 511
Index 515

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Last Updated: Saturday, July 7, 2001