Chapter 6 - Installing And Configuring Remote Access Service
This chapter describes how to install Windows NT Remote Access Service (RAS) on your computer and how to configure the service to work on your network. (Note: It assumes that Windows NT has already been successfully installed on your computer.)
RAS can be installed during the initial Setup or after the initial Windows NT Setup is complete.
To install and configure RAS, you must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group.
Hardware Requirements for RAS
Before you install RAS, all hardware should be installed and working. Depending on your network and requirements, you might need the following hardware:
See the Hardware Compatibility List to verify the compatibility of all hardware in a Windows NT computer.
To ensure that your modems work with Remote Access Service, select them from the list of supported modems in the Hardware Compatibility List. Microsoft has tested and verified these modems with Remote Access Service.
Compatibility and Speed
Modems from different manufacturers—and even different models from one manufacturer—might be incompatible in some settings and circumstances. Even modems that claim to follow the Hayes AT command set might, at times, be unable to communicate with other Hayes-compatible modems.
And because modems achieve high speeds in different ways, compatibility problems increase with high-speed modems. Even modems that follow a standard for compression and error correction might be unable to communicate with each other at higher speeds and, therefore, might fall back to a slower speed. So, if you buy high-speed modems from different manufacturers to benefit from high data-exchange rates, you might be disappointed.
Note To ensure compatibility, have clients and servers use the same kind of modem. This is less critical if your modems conform to industry standards, but still it is safer to choose the same model for both clients and server. For more information on RAS and modem compatibility standards, see the RAS Reference appendix in the Networking Guide of the Windows NT Server Resource Kit version 4.0.
For rates of 12,000 bps and higher, modem manufacturers often require that computer-to-modem communication occur at 19,200 bps. For this reason, Remote Access software assumes that modems able to connect at 12,000 or 14,400 bps can function at the computer-to-modem speeds of 19,200 bps or faster. Virtually all high-speed modems can do so.
Modems supported by Remote Access do not necessarily work in all modes with other modems in the list. For example, the Hayes® V-Series 9600 modem connects at 9600 bits per second (bps) only with another Hayes V-Series 9600 modem. So if you install this modem on a Remote Access server, make sure that Remote Access clients also have Hayes V-Series 9600 modems. Otherwise, connections will probably be made at 2400 bps.
If you use one of the modems named in the Hardware Compatibility List when you set up Remote Access, and you cannot connect, follow these steps:
To troubleshoot a supported modem
For more information, see Chapter 8, "Maintenance and Troubleshooting."
Although modems not supported by Microsoft can work with the Remote Access Service, they have not yet been tested with the software. If you choose unsupported modems, make sure they support one of the modulation schemes shown in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 shows the most popular modulation schemes in the left column and their corresponding speed range in bits per second (bps) in the right column.
For details about industry standard protocols, see the glossary in online Help.
When configuring an unsupported modem for RAS, you must select from the list of supported modems a modem that matches yours as closely as possible. For best results, compare entries in the MODEM.INF file with commands for your modem (located in your modem's documentation).
To see a list of supported modems, you can also have RAS try to autodetect your modem.
To configure an unsupported modem
If you have trouble connecting through an unsupported modem, test the modem's compatibility.
To test a modem's compatibility
To test a modem with Windows NT HyperTerminal
Connecting Without a Modem
To establish a direct serial connection between two computers, select a null modem. Although a direct serial connection eliminates the need for a network adapter card, it is a slow link, and password authentication is still required. A null modem configuration works best only for computers physically near each other.
To configure your system for a direct serial connection
For information about configuring COM ports for RAS usage, see "Installing Remote Access Software" in this chapter. For information about installing ports, see the Ports icon in Control Panel.
Important For information about cabling required for null modems, see Appendix B, "RAS Cabling" or see the topic "Cabling Requirements" in the RAS online Help.
Windows NT works with a variety of third-party modem pooling equipment.
To configure a server to work with modem-pooling equipment
Installing Remote Access Software
Although RAS is part of Windows NT Setup, you can also install it using the Network icon in Control Panel after you have installed Windows NT.
Note RAS installation will vary slightly, depending on which network protocols are installed. If you will use the TCP/IP or IPX protocol with RAS, install the protocol before you install RAS. (Note that selecting an uninstalled protocol will cause that protocol to be installed at the conclusion of RAS Setup.) For information about installing either protocol, see the Windows NT Server Start Here.
To add the Remote Access software
The Remote Access software includes the following applications:
Choosing a Protocol for a RAS Server
Because RAS provides access to a LAN, you must select and configure the protocols to use on the LAN. A Windows NT Workstation or Server computer can be either a RAS server or a client. You must configure the LAN protocols RAS will use in each role.
A RAS computer's role is determined when you specify how RAS-enabled ports will be used. See the previous procedure for information on the various port settings.
Setting network LAN protocols affect all RAS operations for all RAS-enabled ports. For example, you must enable TCP/IP for the LAN before you can choose to use TCP/IP for a specific RAS entry. For more information on choosing protocols for RAS entries, see the section "Choosing a Protocol for a RAS Entry" later in this chapter.
For information about choosing a LAN protocol, see "Configuring RAS to Use LAN Protocols" in Help.
Configuring a RAS Server to Use NetBEUI
NetBEUI gives the best performance for NetBIOS applications in small LANs. Removing NetBEUI still allows you to use RAS with TCP/IP or IPX. You can configure whether NetBEUI clients can access the entire network or the RAS computer only.
For information about using NetBEUI on a RAS server, see "Configuring a RAS Server to Use NetBEUI" in Help.
Configuring a RAS Server to Use TCP/IP
Use the Network icon in Control Panel to configure or reconfigure the TCP/IP settings for RAS connections.
The RAS server has two TCP/IP configurations:
For information about how to configure RAS to supply IP addresses to RAS clients, see "Configuring a RAS Server to Use TCP/IP" in Help.
Configuring Name Resolution for RAS Clients
RAS client name resolution is based on the available network services and on the RAS server configuration:
If the RAS server is configured to use a WINS server and a DNS server on the network, RAS clients will use them as well.If the RAS server has multiple network adapter cards, clients will use the WINS servers on the first network configured for INS and DNS.Note Clients can also specify addresses of WINS and DNS servers on a per-entry basis by configuring TCP/IP Settings in the Dial-Up Networking Server tab.RAS clients in small networks where IP addresses do not change can use a HOST file and LMHOSTS file for name resolution. Using these files on the local drive saves transmitting the name resolution request to the WINS server and waiting for a response over the modem.
Note Standard broadcast name resolution does not work over RAS. Users must have a name resolution method, such as WINS or a LMHOSTS file, or they must use IP addresses.
For more information about name resolution on a Microsoft TCP/IP network, see Chapter 3, "Implementation Considerations."
Configuring a RAS Server to Use IPX
Use the Network icon in Control Panel to configure or reconfigure the IPX settings for RAS connections. For information about using IPX on a RAS server, see "Configuring a RAS Server to Use IPX" in Help.
Choosing a Protocol for a RAS Entry
Dial-Up Networking clients can enter and maintain names and telephone numbers of remote networks. Clients connect to and disconnect from remote networks using the Dial-Up Networking program. Users can select the network protocols to use for a specific Phonebook entry, depending on the type of server you are dialing (PPP, SLIP, or Microsoft RAS).
For information about choosing a protocol on a RAS client, see "Choosing a Protocol for a RAS Entry" in Help.
This section contains information about configuring RAS in special situations and using specialized hardware.
Configuring Stand-alone Remote Servers to Appear to Local Network Browsers
Users who set up a RAS server at home and dial into it from a computer at work must follow the referenced procedure to have the name of their home server appear in the browsing list of remote clients.
For information about configuring a remote RAS server to appear to local network browsers, see "Configuring Stand-alone Remote Servers to Appear to Local Network Browsers" in Help.
Configuring Other Vendors' Dial-Up Servers for NetBIOS IP and IPX
If Windows NT clients dialing into other vendors' dial-up servers must access NetBIOS resources using IP and IPX, the dial-up servers must be configured to forward NetBIOS broadcast traffic. Such forwarding might result in poor performance over the RAS connection if the LAN has substantial NetBIOS activity. For information about configuring a server to forward NetBIOS broadcasts, see "IPXRouter Parameters" in Appendix A, "RAS Registry Values."
For better performance on TCP/IP networks, Windows NT clients can use WINS servers or proxies when dialing into other vendors' servers if the server can provide access to a Windows NT Server WINS server or proxy agent on the LAN.For more information, see TCP/IP online Help.
Granting Remote Access Permissions
After installing Remote Access software on a server, you must grant Remote Access permissions to users. Without them, users cannot successfully connect to the Remote Access computer (even if Remote Access client software is installed on their computers).
For more information see "Setting Up RAS Security on Accounts," in Chapter 7 "RAS Security."
Windows NT RAS features several new dialing options such as AutoDial and Multilink. With these options you can automatically connect to remote sites and resources and use multiple WAN devices to connect to the same remote resource, thereby increasing bandwidth.
RAS Automatic Dialing
RAS AutoDial maps and maintains network addresses to RAS phonebook entries, allowing them to be automatically dialed when referenced—whether from an application or from the command line. A network address can be an Internet host name, an IP address, or a NetBIOS server name.
AutoDial also learns about every connection made over a RAS link for possible automatic reconnection later.
There are two possible scenarios when AutoDial attempts to make a connection:
Although AutoDial is automatically enabled when you start your computer, you can turn it off if desired. (For example, you might have multiple Internet providers on a computer at one location and want to use different providers at different times).
To turn off AutoDial
You can turn on AutoDial by reselecting a location in the Enable auto-dial by location list.
Known Problems for this Release
If you have problems, run the following command from the Command Prompt to give basic AutoDial status:
C:> rasautou -s
Status ouptput has two parts: network adapter card bindings and a list of learned AutoDial addresses. At least one network adapter card binding must be reported as working for AutoDial to realize you are connected to the network. For AutoDial to automatically create a network connection while you are connected to a network, the address must be in the list of learned AutoDial addresses. Here is an example listing network adapter card bindings and a list of learned addresses:
Checking netcard bindings... NetworkConnected: network (\Device\Nbf_IEEPRO1, 0) is up Enumerating AutoDial addresses... There are 3 Autodial addresses: ftp.microsoft.com 220.127.116.11 SCRATCH
Multilink combines multiple physical links into a logical "bundle." This aggregate link increases your bandwidth.
RAS performs PPP Multilink dialing over multiple ISDN, X.25, or modem lines. The feature is available only if multiple WAN adapters are available on the computer.
To use Multilink, both the clients and servers must have Multilink enabled.
Note If a client uses a multinked phonebook entry to dial a server that is configured to call that user back for security reasons (enforced callback), then only one of the multilinked devices will be called back. This is because only one number can be stored in a user account. Therefore, only one device will connect and all other devices will fail to complete the connection, and the client loses multilink functionality.
A situation that will work is if the multilinked phonebook entry is ISDN with two channels that have the same phone number.
To enable Multilink on a RAS client
For more information about Multilink connection options, see the online Help.
To enable Multilink on a RAS server
The Dial-Up Networking Monitor (located in the Control Panel) provides the status of a call, and allows you to see
For more information on using Dial-Up Monitor, see Chapter 8, "Maintenance and Troubleshooting."