Glossary

A

access permissionA rule associated with an object (usually a directory, file, or printer) to regulate which users can have access to the object and in what manner. See also user right.

access privilegesPermissions set by Macintosh users that allow them to view and make changes to folders on a server. By setting access privileges (called permissions when set on the computer running Windows NT Server) you control which Macintoshes can use folders in a volume. Services for Macintosh translates access privileges set by Macintosh users to the equivalent Windows NT permissions.

account See user account; group account.

account lockout A Windows NT Server security feature that locks a user account if a number of failed logon attempts occur within a specified amount of time, based on account policy lockout settings. (Locked accounts cannot log on.) See also password parameters.

account policy Controls the way passwords must be used by all user accounts of a domain, or of an individual computer. Specifics include minimum password length, how often a user must change his or her password, and how often users can reuse old passwords. Account policy can be set for all user accounts in a domain when administering a domain, and for all user accounts of a single workstation or member server when administering a computer

ACKShort for acknowledgment. The transmission control protocol (TCP) requires that the recipient of data packets acknowledge successful receipt of data. Such acknowledgments (ACKs) generate additional network traffic, diminishing the rate at which data passes in favor of reliability. To reduce the impact on performance, most hosts send an acknowledgment for every other segment or when a specified time interval has passed.

Active The window or icon that you are currently using or that is currently selected. Windows NT always applies the next keystroke or command you choose to the active window. If a window is active, its title bar changes color to differentiate it from other windows. If an icon is active, its label changes color. Windows or icons on the desktop that are not selected are inactive.

adapter card See network card.

address When using Network Monitor, an address refers to a hexadecimal number that identifies a computer uniquely on the network.

address classes Predefined groupings of Internet addresses, with each class defining networks of a certain size. The range of numbers that can be assigned for the first octet in the IP address is based on the address class. Class A networks (values 1-126) are the largest, with over 16 million hosts per network. Class B networks (128-191) have up to 65,534 hosts per network, and Class C networks (192-223) can have up to 254 hosts per network. See also octet.

address pairs Refers to the two specific computers between which you want to monitor traffic using Network Monitor. Up to four specific address pairs can be monitored simultaneously to capture frames from particular computers on your network. See also frame.

address resolution protocol (ARP) A protocol in the TCP/IP suite that provides IP address-to-MAC address resolution for IP packets. See also media access control (MAC); IP address; packet.

administrative account An account that is a member of the Administrators local group of a computer or domain.

administrative alerts Administrative alerts relate to server and resource use and warn about problems in areas such as security and access, user sessions, server shutdown due to power loss (when UPS is available), directory replication, and printing. When a computer generates an administrative alert, a message is sent to a predefined list of users and computers. See also Alerter service; UPS.

administrator A person responsible for setting up and managing domain controllers or local computers and their user and group accounts, assigning passwords and permissions, and helping users with networking issues. To use administrative tools such as User Manager or User Manager for Domains, an administrator must be logged on as a member of the Administrators local group of the computer or domain, respectively.

Administrator privilege One of three privilege levels you can assign to a Windows NT user account. Every user account has one of the three privilege levels (Administrator, Guest, and User). See also administrator; User privilege and Guest privilege.

agent In SNMP, agent information consists of comments about the user, the physical location of the computer, and the types of service to report based on the computer's configuration. See also SNMP.

Alerter service Notifies selected users and computers of administrative alerts that occur on a computer. Used by the Server and other services. Requires the Messenger service. See also administrative alerts; Messenger service.

API Acronym for application programming interface, a set of routines that an application programmer uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. These maintenance chores are performed by the computer's operating system, and an API provides the program with a means of communicating with the system, telling it which system-level task to perform and when.

AppleShare Client software that is shipped with all Macintoshes and with Apple Computer's server software. With Services for Macintosh, Macintoshes use their native AppleShare client software to connect to computers running Windows NT Server that have Services for Macintosh.

AppleTalk Apple Computer's network architecture and network protocols. A network that has Macintosh clients and a computer running Windows NT Server with Services for Macintosh functions as an AppleTalk network.

AppleTalk Filing Protocol The presentation layer protocol that manages access of remote files in an AppleTalk network.

AppleTalk Phase 2 The extended AppleTalk internet model designed by Apple Computer, which supports multiple zones within a network and extended addressing capacity.

AppleTalk Protocol The set of network protocols on which AppleTalk network architecture is based. Setting up Services for Macintosh installs its AppleTalk Protocol stack on a computer running Windows NT Server so that Macintosh clients can connect to it.

AppleTalk Transport The layer of AppleTalk Phase 2 protocols that deliver data to its destination on the network.

application A computer program used for a particular kind of work, such as word processing. This term is often used interchangeably with "program."

application log The application log contains specific events logged by applications. Applications developers decide which events to monitor (for example, a database program might record a file error in the application log). Use Event Viewer to view the application log.

application window The main window for an application, which contains the application's menu bar and work area. An application window may contain multiple document windows.

ARC Acronym for Advanced RISC Computing. ARC names are a generic method of identifying devices within the ARC environment. See also RISC.

archive bit Backup programs use the archive bit to mark the files after backing them up, if a normal or incremental backup is performed. See also backup types.

ARP Acronym for Address Resolution Protocol, one of the network maintenance protocols that is a member the TCP/IP suite (not directly related to data transport). See also TCP/IP.

ARP reply packet All ARP-enabled systems on the local IP network detect ARP request packets, and the system that owns the IP address in question replies by sending its physical address to the requester in an ARP reply packet. The physical/IP address is then stored in the ARP cache of the requesting system for subsequent use. See also ARP; ARP request packet; IP; MAC address.

ARP request packet If two systems are to communicate across a TCP/IP network, the system sending the packet must map the IP address of the final destination to the physical address of the final destination. This physical address is also referred to as a MAC address, a unique 48-bit number assigned to the network interface card by the manufacturer. IP acquires this physical address by broadcasting a special inquiry packet (an ARP request packet) containing the IP address of the destination system. See also ARP; IP; MAC; MAC address.

ASCII file Also called a text file, a text-only file, or an ASCII text file, refers to a file in the universally recognized text format called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). An ASCII file contains characters, spaces, punctuation, carriage returns, and sometimes tabs and an end-of-file marker, but it contains no formatting information. This generic format is useful for transferring files between programs that could not otherwise understand each other's documents. See also text file.

AS/400 A type of IBM minicomputer.

associate To identify a filename extension as "belonging" to a certain application, so that when you open any file with that extension, the application starts automatically.

attributes Information that indicates whether a file is a read-only, hidden, system, or compressed file, and whether the file has been changed since a backup copy of it was made.

auditing Tracking activities of users by recording selected types of events in the security log of a server or a workstation.

audit policy For the servers of a domain or for an individual computer, defines the type of security events that will be logged.

authentication Validation of a user's logon information. When a user logs on to an account on a computer running Windows NT Workstation, the authentication is performed by that workstation. When a user logs on to an account on a Windows NT Server domain, authentication may be performed by any server of that domain. See also server; trust relationships.

B

Backup Domain Controller (BDC) In a Windows NT Server domain, a computer running Windows NT Server that receives a copy of the domain's directory database, which contains all account and security policy information for the domain. The copy is synchronized periodically and automatically with the master copy on the primary domain controller (PDC). BDCs also authenticate user logons and can be promoted to function as PDCs as needed. Multiple BDCs can exist on a domain. See also member server; PDC.

backup set A collection of files from one drive that is backed up during a single backup operation.

backup set catalog At the end of each backup set, Windows NT Backup stores a summary of file and/or directory information in a backup set catalog. Catalog information includes the number of tapes in a set of tapes as well as the date they were created and the dates of each file in the catalog. Catalogs are created for each backup set and are stored on the last tape in the set. See also backup set.

backup set map At the end of each tape used for backup, a backup set map maintains the exact tape location of the backup set's data and catalog.

backup types:copy backup Copies all selected files, but does not mark each file as having been backed up. Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups, because copying will not invalidate these other backup operations. daily backup Copies all selected files that have been modified the day the daily backup is performed. differential backup Copies those files created or changed since the last normal (or incremental) backup. It does not mark files as having been backed up. incremental backup Backs up only those files created or changed since the last normal (or incremental) backup. It marks files as having been backed up. normal backup Copies all selected files and marks each as having been backed up. Normal backups give you the ability to restore files quickly because files on the last tape are the most current. bandwidth In communications, the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in a given range. For example, a telephone line accommodates a bandwidth of 3000 Hz, the difference between the lowest (300Hz) and highest (3300 Hz) frequencies it can carry. In computer networks, greater bandwidth indicates faster data-transfer capability and is expressed in bits per second (bps).

batch program An ASCII file (unformatted text file) that contains one or more Windows NT commands. A batch program's filename has a .cmd or .bat extension. When you type the filename at the command prompt, the commands are processed sequentially.

batch queue facility A program that effects a logon without user input, used for delayed logons.

BDC See backup domain controller.

binary A base-2 number system, in which values are expressed as combinations of two digits,
0 and 1.

binary-file transfer A method of transferring binary files from Windows NT HyperTerminal to a remote computer. Binary files consist of ASCII characters plus the extended ASCII character set. These files are not converted or translated during the transfer process. See also ASCII file.

binding A process that establishes the communication channel between a protocol driver (such as TCP/IP) and a network card. See also network card; TCP/IP.

bookmarks A Windows NT feature which enables you to highlight major points of interest at various points in a Performance Monitor log file and then return to them easily when you work with that log file later on during performance monitoring. Bookmarks are also used in other applications such as Microsoft Word.

boot loader Defines the information needed for system startup, such as the location for the operating system's files. Windows NT automatically creates the correct configuration and checks this information whenever you start your system.

boot partition The volume, formatted for either an NTFS or FAT file system, that has the Windows NT operating system and its support files. The boot partition can be (but does not have to be) the same as the system partition. See also partition; FAT; NTFS.

BOOTP See Bootstrap protocol.

Bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) A TCP/IP network protocol, defined by RFC 951 and RFC 1542, used to configure systems. DHCP is an extension of BOOTP. See also DHCP.

bps An abbreviation for bits per second, a measure of the speed at which a device, such as a modem, can transfer data.

branch A segment of the directory tree, representing a directory (or folder) and any subdirectories (or folders within folders) it contains.

bridge Connects multiple networks, subnets, or rings into one large logical network. A bridge maintains a table of node addresses and based on this, forwards packets to a specific subnet, reducing traffic on other subnets. In a bridged network, there can be only one path to any destination (otherwise packets would circle the network, causing network storms). A bridge is more sophisticated than a repeater, but not as sophisticated as a router. See also packet; repeater; router; subnet.

broadcast datagrams An IP datagram sent to all hosts on the subnet. See also datagram; Internet Protocol (IP); subnet.

broadcast message A network message sent from a single computer that is distributed to all other devices on the same segment of the network as the sending computer.

Broadcast name resolution A mechanism defined in RFC 1001/1002 that uses broadcasts to resolve names to IP addresses through a process of registration, resolution, and name release. See also broadcast datagram; IP address.

brouter Combines elements of the bridge and the router. Usually, a brouter acts as a router for one transport protocol (such as TCP/IP), sending packets of that format along detailed routes to their destinations. The brouter also acts as a bridge for all other types of packets (such as IPX), just passing them on, as long as they are not local to the LAN segment from which they originated. See also bridge; packet; router.

browse To view available network resources by looking through lists of folders, files, user accounts, groups, domains, or computers. Browsing allows users on a Windows NT network to see what domains and computers are accessible from their local computer. See also Windows NT browser system.

browse list A list kept by the master browser of all of the servers and domains on the network. This list is available to any workstation on the network requesting it. See also browse.

browse master See master browser; Windows NT browser system.

buffer A reserved portion of memory in which data is temporarily held pending an opportunity to complete its transfer to or from a storage device or another location in memory. Some devices, such as printers or the adapters supporting them, commonly have their own buffers. See also memory.

built-in groups Are default groups provided with Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server which have been granted useful collections of rights and built-in abilities. In most cases, a built-in group provides all the capabilities needed by a particular user. For example, if a domain user account belongs to the built-in Administrators group, logging on with that account gives a user administrative capabilities over the domain and the servers of the domain. To provide a needed set of capabilities to a user account, assign it to the appropriate built-in group. See also groups, User Manager, User Manager for Domains.

C

cache A special memory subsystem that stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. In Windows NT, for example, user profiles have a locally cached copy of part of the registry.

caching In DNS name resolution, caching refers to a local cache where information about the DNS domain name space is kept. Whenever a resolver request arrives, the local name server checks both its static information and the cache for the name to IP address mapping. See also DNS; IP address; mapping.

capture The process by which Network Monitor copies frames. (A frame is information that has been divided into smaller pieces by the network software prior to transmission.) See also capture; frame.

capture buffer Refers to a reserved, resizable storage area in memory where Network Monitor copies all frames it detects from the network. When the capture buffer overflows, each new frame replaces the oldest frame in the buffer.

capture filter Functions like a database query to single out a subset of frames to be monitored in Network Monitor. You can filter on the basis of source and destination addresses, protocols, protocol properties, or by specifying a pattern offset. See also capture; frame.

capture password Required to be able to capture statistics from the network and to display captured data using Network Monitor.

capture trigger Performs a specified action (such as starting an executable file) when Network Monitor detects a particular set of conditions on the network.

catalog See backup catalog.

CBCP Acronym for Callback Control Protocol, which negotiates callback information with a remote client.

CCP Acronym for Compression Control Protocol, which negotiates compression with a remote client.

centralized network administration A centralized view of the entire network from any workstation on the network that provides the ability to track and manage information on users, groups, and resources in a distributed network.

change log An inventory of the most recent changes made to the directory database such as new or changed passwords, new or changed user and group accounts, and any changes to associated group memberships and user rights. Change logs provide fault tolerance, so if your system crashes before a write completes, Windows NT can complete the write the next time you boot. This log holds only a certain number of changes, however, so when a new change is added, the oldest change is deleted. See also directory database; fault tolerance.

CHAP Acronym for Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, used by Microsoft RAS to negotiate the most secure form of encrypted authentication supported by both server and client. See also encryption.

check box A small box in a dialog box or property page that can be selected or cleared. Check boxes represent an option that you can turn on or off. When a check box is selected, an X or a check mark appears in the box.

checksum The mathematical computation used to verify the accuracy of data in TCP/IP packets. See also packet; TCP/IP.

choose To pick an item that begins an action in Windows NT. You often click a command on a menu to perform a task, and you click an icon to start an application.

Chooser The Macintosh desk accessory with which users select the network server and printers they want to use.

Chooser Pack A collection of files, some of which contain PostScript information. When a Macintosh sends a print job to a PostScript printer, the printer uses a Chooser Pack to interpret PostScript commands in the print job. See PostScript printer; print processor.

clear To turn off an option by removing the X or check mark from a check box. You clear a check box by clicking it, or by selecting it and then pressing the SPACEBAR.

cleartext passwords Passwords that are not scrambled, thus making them more susceptible to network sniffers. See also network sniffer.

click To press and release a mouse button quickly.

client A computer that accesses shared network resources provided by another computer, called a server. See also server; workstation.

client application A Windows NT application that can display and store linked or embedded objects. For distributed applications, the application that imitates a request to a server application. See also server application, DCOM, DCOM Configuration tool.

Client Service for NetWare Included with Windows NT Workstation, enabling workstations to make direct connections to file and printer resources at NetWare servers running NetWare 2.x or later.Clipboard A temporary storage area in memory, used to transfer information. You can cut or copy information onto the Clipboard and then paste it into another document or application.

close To remove a window or dialog box, or quit an application. You close a window by clicking

Close on the

Control menu, or by clicking on the close button icon in the upper right corner of the dialog box. When you close an application window, you quit the application.

collapse To hide additional directory levels below a selected directory in the directory tree.

color scheme A combination of complementary colors for screen elements.

command A word or phrase, usually found on a menu, that you click to carry out an action. You click a command on a menu or type a command at the Windows NT command prompt. You can also type a command in the Run dialog box, which you open by clicking Run on the Start menu.

command button A button in a dialog box that carries out or cancels the selected action. Two common command buttons are OK and Cancel. Clicking a command button that contains an ellipsis (for example, Browse... ) causes another dialog box to appear.

compact A command-line utility used to compress files on NTFS volumes. To See command line options, type compact /? at the command prompt. This utility can also be accessed by right-clicking any file or directory on an NTFS volume in Windows NT Explorer and clicking Properties to compress or uncompress the files.

computer account Each computer running Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server that participates in a domain has its own account in the directory database. A computer account is created when the computer is first identified to the domain during network setup at installation time.

common groups Common groups appear in the program list on the Start menu for all users who log on to the computer. Only Administrators can create or change common groups.

communications settings Settings that specify how information is transferred from your computer to a device (usually a printer or modem).

community names A group of hosts to which a server belongs that is running the SNMP service. The community name is placed in the SNMP packet when the trap is sent. Typically, all hosts belong to Public, which is the standard name for the common community of all hosts. See also SNMP; packet; trap.

compound device A device that plays specific media files. For example, to run a compound device such as a MIDI sequencer, you must specify a MIDI file.

Computer Browser service Maintains an up-to-date list of computers, and provides the list to applications when requested. Provides the computer lists displayed in the >Network Neighborhood, Select Computer, and Select Domain dialog boxes; and (for Windows NT Server only) in the Server Manager window.

computer name A unique name of up to 15 uppercase characters that identifies a computer to the network. The name cannot be the same as any other computer or domain name in the network.

configure To change the initial setup of a client, a Macintosh-accessible volume, a server, or a network.

connect To assign a drive letter, port, or computer name to a shared resource so that you can use it with Windows NT.

connected user A user accessing a computer or a resource across the network.

connection A software link between a client and a shared resource such as a printer or a shared directory on a server. Connections require a network card or modem.

control codes Codes that specify terminal commands or formatting instructions (such as linefeeds or carriage returns) in a text file. Control codes are usually preceded by a caret (^).

Control menu See window menu; pop-up menu.

controller See primary domain controller; backup domain controller.

conventional memory Up to the first 640K of memory in your computer. MS-DOS uses this memory to run applications.

current directory The directory that you are currently working in. Also called current folder.

D

DACL Acronym for discretionary access control list. See discretionary access control; SACL.

daemon A networking program that runs in the background.

data carrier In communications, either a specified frequency that can be modulated to convey information or a company that provides telephone and other communications services to consumers.

database query The process of extracting data from a database and presenting it for use.

data fork The part of a Macintosh file that holds most of the file's information. The data fork is the part of the file shared between Macintosh and PC clients.

datagram A packet of data and other delivery information that is routed through a packet-switched network or transmitted on a local area network. See also packet.

data stream Windows NT Network Monitor monitors the network data stream, which consists of all information transferred over a network at any given time.

DCD Acronym for Data Carrier Detect, which tracks the presence of a data carrier. See also data carrier.

DCE Acronym for data communications equipment, an elaborate worldwide network of packet-forwarding nodes that participate in delivering an X.25 packet to its designated address, for example, a modem. See also node; packet; X.25.

DCOM Acronym for Distributed Component Object Model. Use the DCOM Configuration tool to integrate client/server applications across multiple computers. DCOM can also be used to integrate robust Web browser applications.

DCOM Configuration tool A Windows NT Server Utility that can be used to configure 32-bit applications for DCOM communication over the network. See also DCOM.

DDE See dynamic data exchange.

decision tree A geographical representation of a filter's logic used by Windows NT Network Monitor. When you include or exclude information from your capture specifications, the decision tree reflects these specifications.

default button In some dialog boxes, the command button that is selected or highlighted when the dialog box is initially displayed. The default button has a bold border, indicating that it will be chosen automatically if you press ENTER. You can override a default button by clicking

Cancel or another command button.

default gateway In TCP/IP, the intermediate network device on the local network that has knowledge of the network IDs of the other networks in the internet, so it can forward the packets to other gateways until the packet is eventually delivered to a gateway connected to the specified destination. See also gateway; network ID; packet.

default network In the Macintosh environment, this refers to physical network on which a server's processes reside as nodes and on which the server appears to users. A server's default network must be one to which that server is attached. Only servers on AppleTalk Phase 2 internets have default networks.

default owner The person assigned ownership of a folder on the server when the account of the folder or volume's previous owner expires or is deleted. Each server has one default owner; you can specify the owner.

default profile See system default profile; user default profile.

default printer The printer that is used if you choose the Print command without first specifying which printer you want to use with an application. You can have only one default printer; it should be the printer you use most often.

default user Every user profile begins as a copy of default user (a default user profile stored on each computer running Windows NT Workstation or Windows NT Server).

default zone The zone to which all Macintosh clients on the network are assigned by default.

dependent service A service that requires the support of another service. For example, the Alerter service is dependent on the Messenger service. See also Alerter service; Messenger service.

DES Acronym for Data Encryption Standard, a type of encryption (the U.S. government standard) designed to protect against password discovery and playback. Microsoft RAS uses DES encryption when both the client and the server are using RAS.

descendent key All the subkeys that appear when a key in the registry is expanded. A descendent key is the same thing as a subkey. See also key; subkey; Windows NT Registry.

desired zone The zone in which Services for Macintosh appears on the network. See also default zone.

desktop The background of your screen, on which windows, icons, and dialog boxes appear.

desktop pattern A design that appears across your desktop. You can create your own pattern or select a pattern provided by Windows NT.

destination directory The directory to which you intend to copy or move one or more files.

destination document The document into which a package or a linked or embedded object is being inserted. For an embedded object, this is sometimes also called the container document. See also embedded object; linked object; package.

device Any piece of equipment that can be attached to a network — for example, a computer, a printer, or any other peripheral equipment.

device contention The way Windows NT allocates access to peripheral devices, such as modems or a printers, when more than one application is trying to use the same device.

device driver A program that enables a specific piece of hardware (device) to communicate with Windows NT. Although a device may be installed on your system, Windows NT cannot recognize the device until you have installed and configured the appropriate driver. If a device is listed in the Hardware Compatibility List, a driver is usually included with Windows NT. Drivers are installed when you run the Setup program (for a manufacturer's supplied driver) or by using Devices in Control Panel. See also HCL.

DHCP Acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, which offers dynamic configuration of IP addresses and related information. DHCP provides safe, reliable, and simple TCP/IP network configuration, prevents address conflicts, and helps conserve the use of IP addresses through centralized management of address allocation. See also IP address.

DHCP Relay Agent The component responsible for relaying DHCP and BOOTP broadcast messages between a DHCP server and a client across an IP router. See also BOOTP; DHCP.

dialog box A window that is displayed to request or supply information. Many dialog boxes have options you must select before Windows NT can carry out a command.

dial-up line A standard dial-up connection such as telephone and ISDN lines.

dial-up networking The client version of Windows NT Remote Access Service (RAS), enabling users to connect to remote networks.

directory Part of a structure for organizing your files on a disk, a directory (also called a folder) is represented by the folder icon in Windows NT, Windows 95, and on Macintosh computers. A directory can contain files and other directories, called subdirectories or folders within folders. With Services for Macintosh, directories on the computer running Windows NT Server appear to Macintosh users as volumes and folders if they are designated as Macintosh accessible. See also directory tree; folder.

directory database A database of security information such as user account names and passwords, and the security policy settings. For Windows NT Workstation, the directory database is managed using User Manager. For a Windows NT Server domain, it is managed using User Manager for Domains. (Other Windows NT documents may refer to the directory database as the "Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database.")

directory replication The copying of a master set of directories from a server (called an export server) to specified servers or workstations (called import computers) in the same or other domains. Replication simplifies the task of maintaining identical sets of directories and files on multiple computers, because only a single master copy of the data must be maintained. Files are replicated when they are added to an exported directory, and every time a change is saved to the file. See also Directory Replicator service.

Directory Replicator service Replicates directories, and the files in those directories, between computers. See also directory replication.

directory services See Windows NT Directory Services.

directory tree A graphical display of a disk's directory hierarchy. The directories and folders on the disk are shown as a branching structure. The top-level directory is the root directory.

disabled user account A user account that does not permit logons. The account appears in the user account list of the User Manager or User Manager for Domains window and can be re-enabled at any time. See also user account.

discovery A process by which the Windows NT Net Logon service attempts to locate a domain controller running Windows NT Server in the trusted domain. Once a domain controller has been discovered, it is used for subsequent user account authentication.

discretionary access control Allows the network administrator to allow some users to connect to a resource or perform an action while preventing other users from doing so. See also discretionary access control list (DACL); SACL.

disjoint networks Networks that are not connected to each other.

disk configuration information The Windows NT registry includes the following information on the configuration of your disk(s): assigned drive letters, stripe sets, mirror sets, volume sets, and stripe sets with parity. Disk configuration can be changed using Disk Administrator. If you choose to create an Emergency Repair disk, disk configuration information will be stored there, as well as in the registry.

display filter Functions like a database query, allowing you to single out specific types of information. Because a display filter operates on data that has already been captured, it does not affect the contents of the Network Monitor capture buffer. See also capture buffer.

display password Required to be able to open previously saved capture (.cap) files in Network Monitor.

distributed server system In Windows NT, a system in which individual departments or workgroups set up and maintain their own remote access domains.

DLL See dynamic-link library.

DNS See Domain Name System.

DNS name servers In the DNS client-server model, the servers containing information about a portion of the DNS database, which makes computer names available to client resolvers querying for name resolution across the internet. See also Domain Name System (DNS).

document A self-contained file created with an application program and, if saved on disk, given a unique filename by which it can be retrieved. A document can be a text file, a spreadsheet, or an image file, for example.

document file A file that is associated with an application. When you open a document file, the application starts and loads the file. See also associate.

Document file icon Represents a file that is associated with an application. When you double-click a document file icon, the application starts and loads the file. See also associate.

document icon Located at the left of a document window title bar, the document icon represents the open document. Clicking the document icon opens the window menu. Also known as the control menu box.

domain In Windows NT, a collection of computers defined by the administrator of a Windows NT Server network that share a common directory database. A domain provides access to the centralized user accounts and group accounts maintained by the domain administrator. Each domain has a unique name. See also workgroup. See also directory database; user account; workgroup.

domain controller In a Windows NT Server domain, refers to the computer running Windows NT Server that manages all aspects of user-domain interactions, and uses information in the directory database to authenticate users logging on to domain accounts. One shared directory database is used to store security and user account information for the entire domain. A domain has one primary domain controller (PDC) and one or more backup domain controllers (BDCs). See also directory database; member server; PDC; BDC.

domain database See directory database.

domain model A grouping of one or more domains with administration and communication links between them that are arranged for the purpose of user and resource management.

domain name Part of the Domain Name System (DNS) naming structure, a domain name is the name by which a domain is known to the network. Domain names consist of a sequence of labels separated by periods. See also DNS; FQDN.

domain name space The database structure used by the Domain Name System (DNS). See also DNS.

Domain Name System (DNS) Sometimes referred to as the BIND service in BSD UNIX, DNS offers a static, hierarchical name service for TCP/IP hosts. The network administrator configures the DNS with a list of hostnames and IP addresses, allowing users of workstations configured to query the DNS to specify remote systems by hostnames rather than IP addresses. For example, a workstation configured to use DNS name resolution could use the command

ping remotehost rather than

ping 172.16.16.235 if the mapping for the system named remotehost was contained in the DNS database. DNS domainsshould not be confused with Windows NT networking domains. See also ping; IP address.

domain synchronization See synchronize.

dots per inch (DPI) The standard used to measure print device resolution. The greater the DPI, the better the resolution.

double-click To rapidly press and release a mouse button twice without moving the mouse. Double-clicking carries out an action, such as starting an application.

downloaded fonts Fonts that you send to your printer either before or during the printing of your documents. When you send a font to your printer, it is stored in printer memory until it is needed for printing. See also font; font types.

DPI See dots per inch.

drag To move an item on the screen by selecting the item and then pressing and holding down the mouse button while moving the mouse. For example, you can move a window to another location on the screen by dragging its title bar.

drive icon An icon in the All Folders column in Windows NT Explorer or the Names Column in My Computer that represents a disk drive on your system. Different icons depict floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, network drives, RAM drives, and CD-ROM drives.

driver See device driver.

drop folder In the Macintosh environment this refers to a folder for which you have the Make Changes permission but not the See Files or See Folders permission. You can copy files into a drop folder, but you cannot see what files and subfolders the drop folder contains.

DSDM Acronym for DDE share database manager. See also DDE; Network DDE DSDM service.

DSR Acronym for Data Set Ready signal, used in serial communications. A DSR is sent by a modem to the computer to which it's attached to indicate that it is ready to operate. DSRs are hardware signals sent over line 6 in RS-232-C connections.

DTE Acronym for Data Terminal Equipment, for example a RAS server or client. See also Remote Access Service (RAS).

dual boot A computer that can boot two different operating systems. See also multiple-boot.

DWORD A data type composed of hexadecimal data with a maximum allotted space of 4 bytes.

dynamic data exchange (DDE) A form of interprocess communication (IPC) implemented in the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Two or more programs that support dynamic data exchange (DDE) can exchange information and commands. See also IPC.

dynamic-link library (DLL) An operating system feature which allows executable routines (generally serving a specific function or set of functions) to be stored separately as files with DLL extensions and to be loaded only when needed by the program that calls them.

dynamic routing Dynamic routing automatically updates the routing tables, reducing administrative overhead (but increasing traffic in large networks). See also routing table.

E

EISA See Extended Industry Standard Architecture.

embedded object Presents information created in another application which has been pasted inside your document. Information in the embedded object does not exist in another file outside your document.

EMS Acronym for expanded memory, which describes a technique for adding memory to IBM PC systems. EMS bypasses the limits on the maximum amount of usable memory in a computer system by supporting memory boards containing a number of 16 KB banks of RAM that can be enabled or disabled by software. See also memory.

encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file A file that prints at the highest possible resolution for your printer. An EPS file may print faster than other graphical representations. Some Windows NT and non-Windows NT graphical applications can import EPS files. See also font types; PostScript Printer; print processor.

encryption The process of making information indecipherable to protect it from unauthorized viewing or use, especially during transmission or when it is stored on a transportable magnetic medium.

enterprise server Refers to the server to which multiple primary domain controllers (PDCs) in a large organization will replicate. See also primary domain controller (PDC).

environment variable A string consisting of environment information, such as a drive, path, or filename, associated with a symbolic name that can be used by Windows NT. You use the

System option in Control Panel or the

Set command from the Windows NT command prompt to define environment variables.

event Any significant occurrence in the system or an application that requires users to be notified, or an entry to be added to a log.

Event Log service Records events in the system, security, and application logs. Event Log Service is located in Event Viewer.

expand To show hidden directory levels in the directory tree. With My Computer or Windows NT Explorer, directories that can expand have plus-sign icons which you click to expand.

expanded memory A type of memory, up to 8 megabytes, that can be added to an 8086 or 8088 computer, or to an 80286, 80386, 80486, or Pentium computer. The use of expanded memory is defined by the Expanded Memory Specification (EMS). Note: Windows NT requires a 80486 or higher computer.

Explorer Microsoft Windows NT Explorer is a program that enables you to view and manage the files and folders on your computer and make network connections to other shared resources, such as a hard disk on a server. Windows NT Explorer replaces Program Manager and File Manger, which were programs available in earlier versions of Windows NT. Program Manager and File Manager are still available, and can be started in the same way you start other Windows-based programs.

export path In directory replication, a path from which subdirectories, and the files in those subdirectories, are automatically exported from an export server. See also directory replication.

export server In directory replication, a server from which a master set of directories is exported to specified servers or workstations (called import computers) in the same or other domains. See also directory replication.

Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) A 32-bit bus standard introduced in 1988 by a consortium of nine computer industry companies. EISA maintains compatibility with the earlier Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) but provides for additional features.

extended memory Memory beyond one megabyte in 80286, 80386, 80486, and Pentium computers. Note: Windows NT requires a 80486 or higher computer.

extended partition Created from free space on a hard disk, an extended partition can be subpartitioned into zero or more logical drives. Only one of the four partitions allowed per physical disk can be an extended partition, and no primary partition needs to be present to create an extended partition. See also free space; logical drives; primary partition.

extension An extension usually indicates the type of file or directory, or the type of application associated with a file. In MS-DOS, this includes a period and up to three characters at the end of a filename. Windows NT supports long filenames up to the filename limit of 255 characters.

extension-type associations The association of an MS-DOS filename extension with a Macintosh file type and file creator. Extension-type associations allow users of the PC and Macintosh versions of the same application to share the same data files on the server. Services for Macintosh has many predefined extension-type associations; you can also use the Associate command in the MacFile menu in File Manager to add more mappings. See also name mapping.

external command A command that is stored in its own file and loaded from disk when you use the command.

F

family set A collection of related tapes containing several backup sets. See also backup sets.

FAT See file allocation table (FAT).

fault tolerance Ensures data integrity when hardware failures occur. In Windows NT, fault tolerance is provided by the FTDISK.SYS driver. In Disk Administrator, fault tolerance is provided using mirror sets, stripe sets with parity, and volume sets. See also mirror sets; stripe sets with parity; volume sets.

FCB Acronym for file control block, a small block of memory temporarily assigned by a computer's operating system to hold information about a file that has been opened for use. An FCB typically contains such information as the file's identification, its location on disk, and a pointer that marks the user's current (or last) position in the file.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) A type of network media designed to be used with fiber-optic cabling. See also Ethernet, LocalTalk, and token ring.

file A collection of information that has been given a name and is stored on a disk. This information can be a document or an application.

file allocation table (FAT) A table or list maintained by some operating systems to keep track of the status of various segments of disk space used for file storage. Also referred to as the FAT file system.

file creator A four-character sequence that tells the Macintosh Finder the name of the application that created a file. With Services for Macintosh, you can create extension-type associations that map PC filename extensions with Macintosh file creators and file types. These associations allow both PC and Macintosh users to share the same data files on the server. See also extension-type associations.

file fork One of two subfiles of a Macintosh file. When Macintosh files are stored on a computer running Windows NT Server, each fork is stored as a separate file. Each fork can be independently opened by Macintosh users.

filename The name of a file. MS-DOS supports the 8.3 naming convention of up to eight characters followed by a period and a three-character extension. Windows NT supports the FAT and NTFS file systems with filenames up to 255 characters. Since MS-DOS cannot recognize long filenames, Windows NT Server automatically translates long names of files and folders to 8.3 names for MS-DOS users. See also name mapping; long name; short name.

filename extension The characters that follow the period in a filename, following the FAT naming conventions. Filename extensions can have as many as three characters, and are often used to identify the type of file and the application used to create the file (for example, spreadsheet files created by Microsoft Excel have the extension .xls). With Services for Macintosh, you can create extension-type associations that map PC filename extensions with Macintosh file creators and file types.

file replication service A Windows NT service that allows specified file(s) to be replicated to remote systems, ensuring that copies on each system are kept in synchronization. The system that maintains the master copy is called the exporter, and the systems that receive updates are known as importers.

File Server for Macintosh A Services for Macintosh service that enables Macintosh clients and PC clients to share files. Also called MacFile.

file sharing The ability for a Windows NT computer to share parts (or all) of its local file system(s) with remote computers. An administrator creates share points by using either the file sharing command in My Computer or Windows NT Explorer or by using the net share command from the command prompt.

file system In an operating system, the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. NTFS and FAT are types of file systems.

file transfer protocol (FTP) A service supporting file transfers between local and remote systems that support this protocol. FTP supports several commands that allow bidirectional transfer of binary and ASCII files between systems. The FTP Server service is part of the Internet Information Server (IIS). The FTP client is installed with TCP/IP connectivity utilities.

file type In the Macintosh environment this refers to a four-character sequence that identifies the type of a Macintosh file. The file type and file creator are used by the Macintosh Finder to determine the appropriate desktop icon for that file.

find tab Displays the words you can use to search for related topics. Use this tab to look for topics related to a particular word. It is located in the Help button bar near the top of the Help window.

flat name space A naming system in which computer names are created from a short sequence of characters without any additional structure superimposed.

floppy disk A disk that can be inserted in and removed from a disk drive. Floppies are most commonly available in a 3.5 or 5.25 inch format.

flow control An exchange of signals, over specific wires, in which each device signals its readiness to send or receive data.

folder A grouping of files or other folders, graphically represented by a folder icon, in both the Windows NT and Macintosh environments. A folder is analogous to a PC's file system directory, and many folders are, in fact, directories. A folder may contain other folders as well as file objects. See also directory.

font A graphic design applied to a collection of numbers, symbols, and characters. A font describes a certain typeface along with other qualities such as size, spacing, and pitch. See also font set; font types.

font set A collection of font sizes for one font, customized for a particular display and printer. Font sets determine what text looks like on the screen and when printed. See also font.

font types:device fonts Reside in the hardware of your print device. They can be built into the print device itself or can be provided by a font cartridge or font card. downloadable soft fonts Fonts that are stored on disk and downloaded as needed to the print device. PostScript fonts Fonts that are defined in terms of the PostScript page-description language rules from Adobe Systems. When a document displayed in a screen font is sent to a PostScript printer, the printer uses the PostScript version if the font exists. If the font doesn't exist but a version is installed on the computer, that font is downloaded. If there is no PostScript font installed in either the printer or the computer, the bit-mapped font is translated into PostScript and the printer prints text using the bit-mapped font. raster fonts Fonts that are stored as bitmaps. If a print device does not support raster fonts, it will not print them. Raster fonts cannot be scaled or rotated. screen fonts Windows NT fonts that can be translated for output to the print device. Most screen fonts (including TrueType fonts) can be printed as well. TrueType fonts Device-independent fonts that can be reproduced on all print devices. TrueType fonts are stored as outlines and can be scaled and rotated. vector fonts Fonts that are useful on devices such as pen plotters that cannot reproduce bitmaps. They can be scaled to any size or aspect ratio. See also plotter font.

fork See data fork; file fork; resource fork.

FQDN See fully qualified domain name.

frame In synchronous communication, a package of information transmitted as a single unit from one device to another. See also capture.

framing rules Are established between a remote computer and the server, allowing continued communication (frame transfer) to occur. See also frame.

free space Free space is an unused and unformatted portion of a hard disk that can be partitioned or subpartitioned. Free space within an extended partition is available for the creation of logical drives. Free space that is not within an extended partition is available for the creation of a partition, with a maximum of four partitions allowed per disk. See also extended partition; primary partition; logical drive.

FTP See file transfer protocol.

full name A user's complete name, usually consisting of the last name, first name, and middle initial. The full name is information that can be maintained by User Manager and User Manager for Domains as part of the information identifying and defining a user account. See also user account.

full-screen application A non-Windows NT application that is displayed in the entire screen, rather than a window, when running in the Windows NT environment.

full synchronization Occurs when a copy of the entire database directory is sent to a backup domain controller (BDC). Full synchronization is performed automatically when changes have been deleted from the change log before replication takes place, and when a new BDC is added to a domain. See also BDC; directory database.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN) Part of the TCP/IP naming convention known as the Domain Name System, DNS computer names consist of two parts: host names with their domain names appended to them. For example, a host with host name corp001 and DNS domain name trey-research.com has an FQDN of corp001.trey-research.com. (DNS domainsshould not be confused with Windows NT networking domains.) See also DNS.

G

gateway Describes a system connected to multiple physical TCP/IP networks, capable of routing or delivering IP packets between them. A gateway translates between different transport protocols or data formats (for example IPX and IP) and is generally added to a network primarily for its translation ability.Also referred to as an IP router. See also IP address; IP router.

Gateway Service for NetWare Included with Windows NT Server, enables a computer running Windows NT Server to connect to NetWare servers. Creating a gateway enables computers running only Microsoft client software to access NetWare resources through the gateway. See also gateway.

General MIDI A MIDI specification controlled by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA). The specification provides guidelines that authors of MIDI files can use to create files that sound the same across a variety of different synthesizers.

global account For Windows NT Server, a normal user account in a user's domain. Most user accounts are global accounts. If there are multiple domains in the network, it is best if each user in the network has only one user account, in only one domain, and each user's access to other domains is accomplished through the establishment of domain trust relationships. See also local account; trust relationship.

global group For Windows NT Server, a group that can be used in its own domain, member servers and workstations of the domain, and trusting domains. In all those places it can be granted rights and permissions and can become a member of local groups. However, it can only contain user accounts from its own domain. Global groups provide a way to create handy sets of users from inside the domain, available for use both in and out of the domain. Global groups cannot be created or maintained on computers running Windows NT Workstation. However, for Windows NT Workstation computers that participate in a domain, domain global groups can be granted rights and permissions at those workstations, and can become members of local groups at those workstations. See also domain; group; local group; trust relationship.

group In User Manager or User Manager for Domains, an account containing other accounts that are called members. The permissions and rights granted to a group are also provided to its members, making groups a convenient way to grant common capabilities to collections of user accounts. For Windows NT Workstation, groups are managed with User Manager. For Windows NT Server, groups are managed with User Manager for Domains. See also built-in groups; global group; local group; user account.

group account A collection of user accounts. Giving a user account membership in a group gives that user all the rights and permissions granted to the group. See also user account; local account.

group category One of three categories of users to which you can assign Macintosh permissions for a folder. The permissions assigned to the group category are available to the group associated with the folder.

group memberships The groups to which a user account belongs. Permissions and rights granted to a group are also provided to its members. In most cases, the actions a user can perform in Windows NT are determined by the group memberships of the user account the user is logged on to. See also group.

group name A unique name identifying a local group or a global group to Windows NT. A group's name cannot be identical to any other group name or user name of its own domain or computer. See also global group; local group.

guest Services for Macintosh users who do not have a user account or who do not provide a password are logged on as a guest, using a user account with guest privileges. When a Macintosh user assigns permissions to everyone, those permissions are given to the group's guests and users.

guest account On computers running Windows NT Workstation or Windows NT Server, a built-in account used for logons by people who do not have a user account on the computer or domain or in any of the domains trusted by the computer's domain.

Guest privilege One of three privilege levels that you can assign to a Windows NT user account. The guest account used for Macintosh guest logons must have the Guest privilege. See also user account; Administrator privilege; User privilege.

H

h-node A NetBIOS implementation that uses the p-nodeprotocol first, then the b-node protocol if the name service is unavailable. For registration, it uses the b-node protocol, then the p-node protocol. See also p-node; NetBIOS; registration.

handle A handle is a value used to uniquely identify a resource so that a program can access it.

handshaking Refers to flow control in serial communication, which defines a method for the print device to tell Windows NT that its buffer is full. See also buffer.

Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) The Windows NT Hardware Compatibility List lists the devices supported by Windows NT. The latest version of the HCL can be downloaded from the Microsoft Web Page (microsoft.com) on the Internet.

HCL See Hardware Compatibility List.

heterogeneous environment An internetwork with servers and workstations running different operating systems, such as Windows NT, Macintosh, or Novell Netware, using a mix of different transport protocols.

hexadecimal A base-16 number system that consists of the digits 0 through 9 and the uppercase and lowercase letters A (equivalent to decimal 10) through F (equivalent to decimal 15).

high memory area The first 64K of extended memory (often referred to as HMA). See also memory.

hive A section of the registry that appears as a file on your hard disk. The registry subtree is divided into hives (named for their resemblance to the cellular structure of a beehive). A hive is a discrete body of keys, subkeys, and values that is rooted at the top of the registry hierarchy. A hive is backed by a single file and a .log file which are in the %SystemRoot%\system32\config or the %SystemRoot%\profiles\username folders. By default, most hive files (Default, SAM, Security, and System) are stored in the %SystemRoot%\system32\config folder. The %SystemRoot%\ profiles folder contains the user profile for each user of the computer. Because a hive is a file, it can be moved from one system to another, but can only be edited using Registry Editor.

home directory A directory that is accessible to the user and contains files and programs for that user. A home directory can be assigned to an individual user or can be shared by many users.

hop Refers to the next router. In IP routing, packets are always forwarded one router at a time. Packets often hop from router to router before reaching their destination. See also IP address; packet; router.

host Any device that is attached to the network and uses TCP/IP. See also TCP/IP.

host group A set of zero or more hosts identified by a single IP destination address. See also host; IP address.

host ID The portion of the IP address that identifies a computer within a particular network ID. See also IP address; network ID.

host name The name of a device on a network. For a device on a Windows or Windows NT network, this can be the same as the computername, but it may not be. The host name must be in the host table or be known by a DNS server for that host to be found by another computer attempting to communicate with it. See also DNS; host table.

host table The HOSTS and LMHOSTS files, which contain mappings of known IP addresses mapped to host names.

HOSTS file A local text file in the same format as the 4.3 Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX \etc\hosts file. This file maps host names to IP addresses. In Windows NT, this file is stored in the \systemroot\System32\Drivers\Etc directory. See also IP address.

HTML Acronym for Hypertext Markup Language, a simple markup language used to create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform to another. HTML files are simple ASCII text files with codes embedded (indicated by markup tags) to indicate formatting and hypertext links. HTML is used for formatting documents on the World Wide Web.

hue The position of a color along the color spectrum. For example, green is between yellow and blue. This attribute can be set using desktop in Control Panel.

I

ICMP See internet control message protocol.

icon A graphical representation of an element in Windows NT, such as a disk drive, directory, group, application, or document. You can enlarge an application icon to a window when you want to use the application by clicking on the icon. Within applications, there are also toolbar icons for commands such as cut, copy, paste etc.

IDE Acronym for integrated device electronics, a type of disk-drive interface in which the controller electronics reside on the drive itself, eliminating the need for a separate adapter card.

IETF See Internet Engineering Task Force.

IGMP Acronym for Internet Group Management Protocol, used by workgroup software products and supported by Microsoft TCP/IP.

IIS Acronym for Microsoft Internet Information Server, a tool for identifying your computer as an Internet server.

impersonation Impersonation occurs when Windows NT Server allows one process to take on the security attributes of another.

import To create a package by inserting an existing file into Object Packager. When you import a file, the icon of the application you used to create the file appears in the Appearance window, and the name of the file appears in the Contents window. See also package.

import computers In directory replication, the servers or workstations that receive copies of the master set of directories from an export server. See also directory replication; export server.

import path In directory replication, the path to which imported subdirectories, and the files in those subdirectories, will be stored on an import computer. See also directory replication; import computer.

input/output activity (I/O) Read or write actions that your computer performs. Your computer performs a "read" when you type information on your keyboard or you select and choose items by using your mouse. Also, when you open a file, your computer reads the disk on which the file is located to find and open it. Your computer performs a "write" whenever it stores, sends, prints, or displays information. For example, your computer performs a write when it stores information on a disk, displays information on your screen, or sends information through a modem or to a printer. See also I/O addresses.

insertion point The place where text will be inserted when you type. The insertion point usually appears as a flashing vertical bar in an application's window or in a dialog box.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A type of phone line used to enhance WAN speeds, ISDN lines can transmit at speeds of 64 or 128 kilobits per second, as opposed to standard phone lines, which typically transmit at only 9600 bits per second (bps). An ISDN line must be installed by the phone company at both the server site and the remote site. See also bps.

interactive logon A network logon from a computer keyboard, when the user types information in the Logon Information dialog box displayed by the computer's operating system. See also remote logon.

intermediary devices Microsoft RAS supports various kinds of intermediary devices (security hosts and switches) between the remote access client and the remote access server. These devices include a modem-pool switch or security host. See also Remote Access Service (RAS).

internal command Commands that are stored in the file Cmd.exe and that reside in memory at all times.

internet In Windows NT, a collection of two or more private networks, or private inter-enterprise TCP/IP networks. In Macintosh terminology, refers to two or more physical networks connected by routers, which maintain a map of the physical networks on the internet and forward data received from one physical network to other physical networks. Network users in an internet can share information and network devices. You can use an internet with Services for Macintosh by connecting two or more AppleTalk networks to a computer running Windows NT Server.

Internet The global network of networks. See also World Wide Web.

internet control message protocol (ICMP) A maintenance protocol in the TCP/IP suite, required in every TCP/IP implementation, that allows two nodes on an IP network to share IP status and error information. ICMP is used by the ping utility to determine the readability of a remote system. See also ping; TCP/IP.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A consortium that introduces procedures for new technology on the Internet. IETF specifications are released in documents called Requests for Comments (RFCs). See also RFC.

internet group name A name known by a DNS server that includes a list of the specific addresses of systems that have registered the name. See also DNS.

Internet Protocol (IP) The messenger protocol of TCP/IP, responsible for addressing and sending TCP packets over the network. IP provides a best-effort, connectionless delivery system that does not guarantee that packets arrive at their destination or that they are received in the sequence in which they were sent. See also packet; TCP; TCP/IP.

internet router A device that connects networks and directs network information to other networks, usually choosing the most efficient route through other routers. See also router.

internetworks Networks that connect local area networks (LANs) together.

interprocess communication (IPC) The ability, provided by a multitasking operating system, of one task or process to exchange data with another. Common IPC methods include pipes, semaphores, shared memory, queues, signals, and mailboxes. See also named pipes; queue.

interrupt request lines (IRQ) Hardware lines over which devices can send signals to get the attention of the processor when the device is ready to accept or send information. Typically, each device connected to the computer uses a separate IRQ.

intranet A TCP/IP network that uses Internet technology. May be connected to the Internet. See also Internet; TCP/IP.

I/O addresses Locations within the input/output address space of your computer, used by a device such as a printer or modem. See also input/output activity (I/O).

IP See Internet Protocol.

IP address Used to identify a node on a network and to specify routing information. Each node on the network must be assigned a unique IP address, which is made up of the network ID, plus a unique host ID assigned by the network administrator. This address is typically represented in dotted-decimal notation, with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period (for example, 138.57.7.27). In Windows NT, the IP address can be configured statically on the client or configured dynamically through DHCP. See also DHCP; node; octet.

IPC See interprocess communication.

IPCP Acronym for Internet Protocol Control Protocol, specified by RFC 1332. Responsible for configuring, enabling, and disabling the IP protocol modules on both ends of the point-to-point (PPP) link. See also PPP; RFC.

IP datagrams The basic internet protocol (IP) information unit. See also datagram; Internet Protocol (IP).

IP router A system connected to multiple physical TCP/IP networks that can route or deliver IP packets between the networks. See also packet; routing; TCP/IP.

IPX See IPX/SPX.

IPX/SPX Acronym for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange, transport protocols used in Novell NetWare networks. Windows NT implements IPX through NWLink.

ISDN See integrated services digital network.

ISO Abbreviation for the International Standards Organization, an international association of member countries, each of which is represented by its leading standard-setting organization—for example ANSI (American National Standards Institute) for the United States. The ISO works to establish global standards for communications and information exchange.

ISP Acronym for internet service provider, a company or educational institution that enables remote users to access the Internet by providing dial-up connections or installing leased lines.

iteration One of the three key concepts in DNS name resolution. A local name server keeps the burden of processing on itself and passes only iterative resolution requests to other name servers. An iterative resolution request tells the name server that the requester expects the best answer the name server can provide without help from others. If the name server has the requested data, it returns it, otherwise it returns pointers to name servers that are more likely to have the answer. See also DNS. In programming, iteration is the art of executing one or more statements or instructions repeatedly.

J

jump Text, graphics, or parts of graphics that provide links to other Help topics or to more information about the current topic. The pointer changes shape whenever it is over a jump. If you click a jump that is linked to another topic, that topic appears in the Help window. If you click a jump that is linked to more information, the information appears in a pop-up window on top of the main Help window.

K

Kermit Protocol for transferring binary files that is somewhat slower than XModem/CRC. However, Kermit allows you to transmit and receive either seven or eight data bits per character. See also X/Modem/CRC.

kernel driver A driver that accesses hardware. See also device driver.

key A folder that appears in the left pane of a Registry Editor window. A key can contain subkeys and value entries. For example: Environment is a key of KKEY_CURRENT_USER. See also subkey.

key map A mapping assignment that translates key values on synthesizers that do not conform to General MIDI standards. Key maps ensure that the appropriate percussion instrument is played or the appropriate octave for a melodic instrument is played when a MIDI file is played. See also MIDI.

keyboard buffer A temporary storage area in memory that keeps track of keys you typed, even if the computer did not immediately respond to the keys when you typed them.

L

LAN See local area network.

lease In Windows NT, the network administrator controls how long IP addresses are assigned by specifying lease durations that specify how long a computer can use an assigned IP address before having to renew the lease with the DHCP server. See also DHCP; IP address.

license group License groups show a relationship (also known as a mapping) between users and computers. A license group is comprised of a single descriptive name for the group; a specified number of Per-Seat licenses assigned to the group; and a specific list of users who are members of the group.

line printer daemon (LPD) A line printer daemon (LPD) service on the print server receives documents (print jobs) from line printer remote (LPR) utilities running on client systems.

linked object A representation or placeholder for an object that is inserted into a destination document. The object still exists in the source file and, when it is changed, the linked object is updated to reflect these changes.

list box In a dialog box, a type of box that lists available choices—for example, a list of all files in a directory. If all the choices do not fit in the list box, there is a scroll bar.

LMHOSTS file A local text file that maps IP addresses to the computer names of Windows NT networking computers outside the local subnet. In Windows NT, this file is stored in the \systemroot \System32\Drivers\Etc directory. See also IP address; subnet.

local account For Windows NT Server, a user account provided in a domain for a user whose global account is not in a trusted domain. Not required where trust relationships exist between domains. See also global account; trust relationship; user account.

local area network (LAN) A group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network.

local group For Windows NT Workstation, a group that can be granted permissions and rights only for its own workstation. However, it can contain user accounts from its own computer and (if the workstation participates in a domain) user accounts and global groups both from its own domain and from trusted domains. For Windows NT Server, a group that can be granted permissions and rights only for the domain controllers of its own domain. However, it can contain user accounts and global groups both from its own domain and from trusted domains. Local groups provide a way to create handy sets of users from both inside and outside the domain, to be used only at domain controllers of the domain. See also global group; group; trust relationship.

local guest logon Takes effect when a user logs on interactively at a computer running Window NT Workstation or at a member server running Windows NT Server, and specifies Guest as the user name in the Logon Information dialog box. See also interactive logon.

local printer A printer that is directly connected to one of the ports on your computer. See also port.

LocalTalk The name given by Apple Computer to the Apple networking hardware built into every Macintosh. LocalTalk includes the cables and connector boxes that connect components and network devices that are part of the AppleTalk network system. LocalTalk was formerly known as the AppleTalk Personal Network.

local user profiles User profiles which are created automatically on the computer at logon the first time a user logs on to a computer running Windows NT Workstation or Windows NT Server.

lock A method used to manage certain features of subdirectory replication by the export server. You can lock a subdirectory to prevent it from being exported to any import computers, or use locks to prevent imports to subdirectories on an import computer. See also directory replication; export server; import server; subtree.

log books Are kept by the system administrator to record the backup methods, dates, and contents of each tape in a backup set. See also backup set; backup types.

log files Are created by Windows NT Backup and contain a record of the date the tapes were created and the names of files and directories successfully backed up and restored. Performance Monitor also creates log files.

log off To stop using the network and remove your user name from active use until you log on again.

log on To provide a user name and password that identifies you to the network.

logical drive A subpartition of an extended partition on a hard disk. See also extended partition.

Logical Unit (LU) A preset unit containing all the configuration information needed for a user or a program to establish a session with a host or peer computer. See also host; peer.

logon hours For Windows NT Server, a definition of the days and hours during which a user account can connect to a server. When a user is connected to a server and the logon hours are exceeded, the user will either be disconnected from all server connections or will be allowed to remain connected but denied any new connections.

logon script A file that can be assigned to user accounts. Typically a batch file, a logon script runs automatically every time the user logs on. It can be used to configure a user's working environment at every logon, and it allows an administrator to affect a user's environment without managing all aspects of it. A logon script can be assigned to one or more user accounts. See also batch file.

logon script path When a user logs on, the computer authenticating the logon locates the specified logon script (if one has been assigned to that user account) by following that computer's local logon script path (usually C:\Winnt\System32\Repl\Imports\Scripts). See also authentication; logon script.

logon workstations In Windows NT Server, the computers from which a user is allowed to log on.

long name A folder name or filename longer than the 8.3 filename standard (up to eight characters followed by a period and a three-character extension) of the FAT file system. Windows NT Server automatically translates long names of files and folders to 8.3 names for MS-DOS users. Macintosh users can assign long names to files and folders on the server, and using Services for Macintosh, you can assign long names to Macintosh-accessible volumes when you create them. See also FAT; filename; name mapping; short name.

LPD See line printer daemon.

luminosity The brightness of a color on a scale from black to white on your monitor.

M

m-node A NetBIOS implementation that uses the b-node protocol first, then thep-node protocol if the broadcast fails to resolve a name to an IP address. See also IP address; NetBIOS; p-node.

MAC See media access control.

MAC address A unique 48-bit number assigned to the network interface card (NIC) by the manufacturer. MAC addresses (which are physical addresses) are used for mapping in TCP/IP network communication. See also media access control (MAC); ARP; ARP request packet.

MacFile See File Server for Macintosh.

MacFile menu The menu that appears in the Windows NT Server File Manager and Server Manager when Services for Macintosh is set up. You can create Macintosh-accessible volumes, and set permissions and other options using commands on this menu.

MacPrint See Print Server for Macintosh.

Mac volume See Macintosh-accessible volume.

Macintosh-accessible volume Storage space on the server used for folders and files of Macintosh users. A Macintosh-accessible volume is equivalent to a shared directory for PC users. Each Macintosh-accessible volume on a computer running Windows NT Server will correspond to a directory. Both PC users and Macintosh users can be given access to files located in a directory that is designated as both a shared directory and a Macintosh-accessible volume.

Macintosh-style permissions Directory and volume permissions that are similar to the access privileges used on a Macintosh.

Make Changes The Macintosh-style permission that gives users the right to make changes to a folder's contents; for example, modifying, renaming, moving, creating, and deleting files. When Services for Macintosh translates access privileges into Windows NT Server permissions, a user who has the Make Changes privilege is given Write and Delete permissions.

management information base (MIB) A set of objects that represent various types of information about a device, used by SNMP to manage devices. Because different network-management services are used for different types of devices or protocols, each service has its own set of objects. The entire set of objects that any service or protocol uses is referred to as its MIB. See also SNMP.

mandatory user profile A profile that is downloaded to the user's desktop each time he or she logs on. A mandatory user profile is created by an administrator and assigned to one or more users to create consistent or job-specific user profiles. They cannot be changed by the user and remain the same from one logon session to the next. See also user profile; roaming user profile.

mapping In TCP/IP, refers to the relationship between a host or computer name and an IP address, used by DNS and NetBIOS name servers on TCP/IP networks. In Windows NT Explorer, refers to mapping a driver letter to a network drive. In Windows NT License Manager, refers to the relationship between users and computers in license groups. See also DNS; IP address; license groups.

mapping file A file defining exactly which users and groups are to be migrated from NetWare to Windows NT Server, and what new user names and passwords are to be assigned to the migrated users.

master browser A kind of network name server which keeps a browse list of all the servers and domains on the network. Also referred to as browse master. See also browse; Windows NT browser system.

master domain In the master domain model, the domain that is trusted by all other domains on the network and acts as the central administrative unit for user and group accounts.

maximize To enlarge a window to its maximum size by using the Maximize button (at the right of the title bar) or the Maximize command on the window menu.

Maximize button The small button containing a window icon at the right of the title bar. Mouse users can click the Maximize button to enlarge a window to its maximum size. Keyboard users can use the Maximize command on the window menu.

maximum password age The period of time a password can be used before the system requires the user to change it. See also account policy.

media access control (MAC) A layer in the network architecture that deals with network access and collision detection.

media access control (MAC) driver See network card driver.

Media Control Interface (MCI) A standard control interface for multimedia devices and files. Using MCI, a multimedia application can control a variety of multimedia devices and files.

member servers A computer that runs Windows NT Server but is not a primary domain controller (PDC) or backup domain controller (BDC) of a Windows NT domain. Member servers do not receive copies of the directory database. Also called a stand-alone server. See also directory database; PDC, BDC.

memory A temporary storage area for information and applications. See also expanded memory; extended memory.

menu A list of available commands in an application window. Menu names appear in the menu bar near the top of the window. The window menu, represented by the program icon at the left end of the title bar, is common to all Windows NT applications. You open a menu by clicking the menu name.

menu bar The horizontal bar containing the names of all the application's menus. It appears below the title bar.

Messenger service Sends and receives messages sent by administrators or by the Alerter service. See also Alerter service.

MIB See management information base.

MIDI Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, an interface that enables several devices, instruments, or computers to send and receive messages for the purpose of creating music, sound, or lighting.

MIDI setup Specifies the type of MIDI device you are using, the channel and patch settings needed to play MIDI files, and the port your device is using. See also MIDI.

Migration Tool for NetWare Included with Windows NT, enabling you to easily transfer user and group accounts, volumes, folders, and files from a NetWare server to a computer running Windows NT Server.

minimize To reduce a window to a button on the taskbar by using the Minimize button (at the right of the title bar) or the Minimize command on the Control menu. See also maximize.

Minimize button The small button containing a short line at the right of the title bar. Mouse users can click the Minimize button to reduce a window to a button on the taskbar. Keyboard users can use the Minimize command on the Control menu.

minimum password age The period of time a password must be used before the user can change it. See also account policy.

minimum password length The fewest characters a password can contain. See also account policy.

mirror set A fully redundant or shadow copy of data. Mirror sets provide an identical twin for a selected disk; all data written to the primary disk is also written to the shadow or mirror disk. This enables you to have instant access to another disk with a redundant copy of the information on a failed disk. Mirror sets provide fault tolerance. See also fault tolerance.

modem Short for modulator/demodulator, a communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line.

MS-DOS-based application An application that is designed to run with MS-DOS, and therefore may not be able to take full advantage of all Windows NT features.

multicast datagrams IP multicasting is the transmission of an IP datagram to a host group (a set of zero or more hosts identified by a single IP destination address.) An IP datagram sent to one host is called a unicast datagram. An IP datagram sent to all hosts is called a broadcast datagram. See also host; IP address; broadcast datagram.

multihomed computer A system that has multiple network cards, or that has been configured with multiple IP addresses for a single network interface card. See also IP address; network interface card.

multihomed system A system with multiple network adapters attached to separate physical networks.

multilink dialing Multilink combines multiple physical links into a logical "bundle." This aggregate link increases your bandwidth. See also bandwidth.

multiple-boot A computer that runs two or more operating systems. For example, Windows 95, MS-DOS, and Windows NT operating systems can be installed on the same computer. When the computer is started, any one of the operating systems can be selected. Also known as dual-boot.

MultiProtocol Routing (MPR) Enables routing over IP and IPX networks by connecting LANs or by connecting LANS to WANs. See also IPX/SPX; local area network (LAN); wide area network (WAN).

N

name mapping Is provided by Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation to ensure access by MS-DOS users to NTFS and FAT volumes (which can have share names of up to 255 characters, as opposed to MS-DOS, which is restricted to eight characters followed by a period and a three-character extension). With name mapping, each file or directory with a name that does not conform the MS-DOS 8.3 standard is automatically given a second name that does. MS-DOS users connecting the file or directory over the network See the name in the 8.3 format; Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server users see the long name. See also long name; DNS; WINS.

name resolution service TCP/IP internetworks require a name resolution service to convert computer names to IP addresses and IP addresses to computer names. (People use "friendly" names to connect to computers; programs use IP addresses.) See also IP address; TCP/IP.

named pipe An interprocess communication mechanism that allows one process to communicate with another local or remote process.

NDIS See network device interface specification.

Net Logon service For Windows NT Server, performs authentication of domain logons, and keeps the domain's directory database synchronized between the primary domain controller (PDC) and the other backup domain controllers (BDCs) of the domain. See also directory database; PDC; BDC.

NetBEUI A network protocol usually used in small, department-size local area networks of 1 to 200 clients. It can use Token Ring source routing as its only method of routing. See also router; Token Ring.

NetBIOS See network basic input/output system.

NetBT Short for NetBIOS over TCP/IP. The session-layer network service that performs name-to-IP address mapping for name resolution. See also IP address; name resolution service; NetBIOS; TCP/IP.

network adapter See network card.

network adapter card See network card.

network administrator A person responsible for planning, configuring, and managing the day-to-day operation of the network. This person may also be referred to as a system administrator.

network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) An application program interface (API) that can be used by application programs on a local area network. NetBIOS provides application programs with a uniform set of commands for requesting the lower-level services required to conduct sessions between nodes on a network and to transmit information back and forth. See also API.

network card An expansion card or other device used to connect a computer to a local area network (LAN). Also called a network adapter; network adapter card; adapter card; network interface card (NIC).

network card driver A network device driver that works directly with the network card, acting as an intermediary between the card and the protocol driver. With Services for Macintosh, the AppleTalk Protocol stack on the server is implemented as a protocol driver and is bound to one or more network drivers.

Network DDE service The Network DDE (dynamic data exchange) service provides a network transport and security for DDE conversations. See also DDE.

Network DDE DSDM service The Network DDE DSDM (DDE share database manager) service manages shared DDE conversations. It is used by the Network DDE service. See also DDE.

network device driver Software that coordinates communication between the network card and the computer's hardware and other software, controlling the physical function of the network cards.

network device interface specification (NDIS) In Windows networking, the Microsoft/3Com specification for the interface of network device drivers. All transport drivers call the NDIS interface to access network cards. With Services for Macintosh, the AppleTalk Protocol stack on the server is implemented as an NDIS-compliant protocol and is bound to an NDIS network driver. All network drivers and protocol drivers shipped with Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server conform to NDIS.

network directory See shared directory.

network driver See network device driver.

Network Driver Interface Specification See NDIS.

Network File System (NFS) A service for distributed computing systems that provides a distributed file system, eliminating the need for keeping multiple copies of files on separate computers.

network ID The portion of the IP address that identifies a group of computers and devices located on the same logical network.

Network Information Service (NIS) A service for distrbuted computing systems that provides a distributed database system for common configuration files.

network interface card (NIC) See network card.

network number In the Macintosh environment, the network number (also referred to as the network range) is the address or range of addresses assigned to the network, which is used by AppleTalk routers to route information to the appropriate network. Each physical network can have a range of network numbers.

network protocol Software that enables computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP is a network protocol, used on the Internet. See also TCP/IP.

network range In the Macintosh environment, a range of network numbers (routing addresses) associated with a physical network in Phase 2. Apple manuals sometimes refer to a network range as a cable range. See also network number; routing.

network sniffer A hardware and software diagnostic tool that can also be used to decipher passwords, which may result in unauthorized access to network accounts. Cleartext passwords are susceptible to network sniffers.

NFS See Network File System.

NIS See Network Information Service.

node In the PC environment, a node is any device that is attached to the internetwork and uses TCP/IP. (A node can also be referred to as a host.) In the Macintosh environment, a node is an addressable entity on a network. Each Macintosh client is a node.

nonpaged memory Memory that cannot be paged to disk. See also memory; paging file.

non-Windows NT application Refers to an application that is designed to run with Windows 3.x, MS-DOS, OS/2, or POSIX, but not specifically with Windows NT and that may not be able to take full advantage of all Windows NT features (such as memory management). See also POSIX.

NT See Windows NT.

NT file system See NTFS.

NTFS An advanced file system designed for use specifically within the Windows NT operating system. It supports file system recovery, extremely large storage media, long filenames, and various features for the POSIX subsystem. It also supports object-oriented applications by treating all files as objects with user-defined and system-defined attributes. See also POSIX.

NWLink IPX\SPX Compatible Transport A standard network protocol which supports routing, and can support NetWare client-server applications, where NetWare-aware Sockets-based applications communicate with IPX\SPX Sockets-based applications. See also IPX/SPX; Sockets.

O

object Any piece of information, created by using a Windows-based application, that can be linked or embedded into another document. See also embedded object; linked object.

object linking and embedding A way to transfer and share information between applications. See also embedded object; linked object.

octet In programming, an octet refers to eight bits or one byte. IP addresses, for example, are typically represented in dotted-decimal notation, that is, with the decimal value of each octet of the address separated by a period. See also IP address.

offset When specifying a filter in Windows NT Network Monitor based on a pattern match (which limits the capture to only those frames containing a specific pattern of ASCII or hexadecimal data), you must specify where the pattern occurs in the frame. This number of bytes (from the beginning or end of the frame) is known as an offset. See also frame; hexadecimal.

one-way trust relationship One domain (the trusting domain) "trusts" the domain controllers in the other domain (the trusted domain) to authenticate user accounts from the trusted domain to use resources in the trusting domain. See also trust relationship; user account.

open To display the contents of a directory, a document, or a data file in a window.

orphan A member of a mirror set or a stripe set with parity that has failed in a severe manner, such as in a loss of power or a complete head crash. When this happens, the fault-tolerance driver determines that it can no longer use the orphaned member and directs all new reads and writes to the remaining members of the fault-tolerance volume. See also fault tolerance; mirror set; stripe set with parity.

orphaned member See orphan.

OSI Acronym for Open Systems Interconnection model. TCP/IP protocols map to a four-layered conceptual model consisting of Application, Transport, Internet, and Network Interface. Each layer in this TCP/IP model corresponds to one or more layers of the International Standards Organization (ISO) seven-layer OSI model consisting of Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-link, and Physical. See also ISO.

owner In Windows NT, every file and directory on an NTFS volume has an owner, who controls how permissions are set on the file or directory and who can grant permissions to others. In the Macintosh environment, an owner is the user responsible for setting permissions for a folder on a server. A Macintosh user who creates a folder on the server automatically becomes the owner of the folder. The owner can transfer ownership to someone else. Each Macintosh-accessible volume on the server also has an owner.

owner category In the Macintosh environment, this refers to the user category to which you assign permissions for the owner of a folder or a Macintosh volume. See also Macintosh-accessible volume.

P

p-node A NetBIOS implementation that uses point-to-point communications with a name server to resolve names as IP addresses. See also h-node; IP address; NetBIOS.

package An icon that represents an embedded or linked object. When you choose the package, the application used to create the object either plays the object (for example, a sound file) or opens and displays the object. See also embedded object; linked object.

packet A transmission unit of fixed maximum size that consists of binary information representing both data and a header containing an ID number, source and destination addresses, and error-control data.

packet header The part of a packet that contains an identification number, source and destination addresses, and—sometimes—error-control data. See also packet.

PADs Acronym for packet assemblers/disassemblers, a connection used in X.25 networks. X.25 PAD boards can be used in place of modems when provided with a compatible COM driver. See also X.25.

paging file A special file on a PC hard disk. With virtual memory under Windows NT, some of the program code and other information is kept in RAM while other information is temporarily swapped into virtual memory. When that information is required again, Windows NT pulls it back into RAM and, if necessary, swaps other information to virtual memory. Also called a swap file.

PAP Acronym for Password Authentication Protocol, a type of authentication which uses cleartext passwords and is the least sophisticated authentication protocol.

parity Redundant information that is associated with a block of information. In Windows NT Server, stripe sets with parity means that there is one additional parity stripe per row. Therefore, you must use at least three, rather than two, disks to allow for this extra parity information. Parity stripes contain the XOR (the Boolean operation called exclusive OR) of the data in that stripe. Windows NT Server, when regenerating a failed disk, uses the parity information in those stripes in conjunction with the data on the good disks to recreate the data on the failed disk. See also fault tolerance; stripe sets; stripe sets with parity.

partial synchronization The automatic, timed delivery to all domain BDCs (backup domain controllers) of only those directory database changes that have occurred since the last synchronization. See also BDC; synchronize.

partition A partition is a portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate unit. See also extended partition; system partition.

pass-through authentication When the user account must be authenticated, but the computer being used for the logon is not a domain controller in the domain where the user account is defined, nor is it is not the computer where the user account is defined, the computer passes the logon information through to a domain controller (directly or indirectly) where the user account is defined. See also domain controller; user account.

password A security measure used to restrict logons to user accounts and access to computer systems and resources. A password is a unique string of characters that must be provided before a logon or an access is authorized. For Windows NT, a password for a user account can be up to 14 characters, and is case-sensitive. There are four user-defined parameters to be entered in the Account Policy dialog box in User Manager or User Manager for Domains: maximum password age, minimum password age, minimum password length, password uniqueness. With Services for Macintosh, each Macintosh user has a user password that he or she must type when accessing the Windows NT Server. You can also assign each Macintosh-accessible volume a volume password if you want, which all users must type to access the volume. See also account policy.

password uniqueness The number of new passwords that must be used by a user account before an old password can be reused. See also account policy; password.

patch map The part of a channel-map entry that translates instrument sounds, volume settings, and (optionally) key values for a channel.

path A sequence of directory (or folder) names that specifies the location of a directory, file, or folder within the directory tree. Each directory name and filename within the path (except the first) must be preceded by a backslash (\). For example, to specify the path of a file named Readme.Wri located in the Windows directory on drive C, you would type c:\windows\readme.wri.

PC Any personal computer (such as an IBM PC or compatible) using the MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows, Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, or Windows NT Server operating systems.

peer Any of the devices on a layered communications network that operate on the same protocol level.

pel Also known as a pixel, which is short for picture element, the smallest graphic unit that can be displayed on the screen.

permissions Windows NT Server settings you set on a shared resource that determine which users can use the resource and how they can use it. See also access permission. Services for Macintosh automatically translates between permissions and Macintosh access privileges, so that permissions set on a directory (volume) are enforced for Macintosh users, and access privileges set by Macintosh users are enforced for PC users connected to the computer running Windows NT Server.

personal groups In the Start menu on the programs list, a program group you have created that contains program items. Personal groups are stored with your logon information and each time you log on, your personal groups appear. See also groups.

Physical Unit (PU) A network-addressable unit that provides the services needed to use and manage a particular device, such as a communications link device. A PU is implemented with a combination of hardware, software, and microcode.

PIF Acronym for program information file. A PIF provides information to Windows NT about how best to run MS-DOS applications. When you start an MS-DOS application, Windows NT looks for a PIF to use with the application. PIFs contain such items as the name of the file, a start-up directory, and multitasking options.

ping A command used to verify connections to one or more remote hosts. The

ping utility uses the ICMP echo request and echo reply packets to determine whether a particular IP system on a network is functional. The ping utility is useful for diagnosing IP network or router failures. See also ICMP; router.

plotter font A font created by a series of dots connected by lines. Plotter fonts can be scaled to any size and are most often printed on plotters. Some dot-matrix printers also support plotter fonts. See also font; font types.

Point to Point protocol (PPP) A set of industry-standard framing and authentication protocols that is part of Windows NT RAS to ensure interoperability with third-party remote access software. PPP negotiates configuration parameters for multiple layers of the OSI model. See also OSI.

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) PPTP is a new networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPNs), enabling remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Internet by dialing into an internet service provider (ISP) or by connecting directly to the Internet. See also VPN.

pointer The arrow-shaped cursor on the screen that follows the movement of a mouse (or other pointing device) and indicates which area of the screen will be affected when you press the mouse button. The pointer changes shape during certain tasks.

pop-up menu See window menu.

port A location used to pass data in and out of a computing device. This can refer to 1) an adapter card connecting a server to a network; 2) a serial 232 port; 3) a TCP/IP port; 4) a printer port.

port ID The method TCP and UDP use to specify which application running on the system is sending or receiving the data. See also TCP; UDP.

POSIX Acronym for Portable Operating System Interface, an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standard that defines a set of operating-system services. Programs that adhere to the POSIX standard can be easily ported from one system to another.

PostScript printer A printer that uses the PostScript page description language to create text and graphics on the output medium, such as paper or overhead transparency. Examples of PostScript printers include the Apple LaserWriter, the NEC LC-890, and the QMS PS-810. See also font types.

POTS Acronym for plain-old telephone service. Also an acronym for point of termination station, which refers to where a telephone call terminates.

power conditioning A feature of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) which removes spikes, surges, sags, and noise from the power supply. See also UPS.

PPP See Point to Point protocol.

PPTP See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol.

predefined key The key represented by a registry window, the name of which appears in the window's title bar. See also key; registry.

Primary Domain Controller (PDC) In a Windows NT Server domain, the computer running Windows NT Server that authenticates domain logons and maintains the directory database for a domain. The PDC tracks changes made to accounts of all computers on a domain. It is the only computer to receive these changes directly. A domain has only one PDC. See also directory database.

primary group The group with which a Macintosh user usually shares documents stored on a server. You specify a user's primary group in the user's account. When a user creates a folder on the server, the user's primary group is set as the folder's associated group (by default).

primary partition A partition is a portion of a physical disk that can be marked for use by an operating system. There can be up to four primary partitions (or up to three, if there is an extended partition) per physical disk. A primary partition cannot be subpartitioned. See also partition; extended partition.

print device Refers to the actual hardware device that produces printed output.

print job In the Macintosh environment, a document or image sent from a client to a printer.

print processor A PostScript program that understands the format of a document's image file and how to print the file to a specific printer or class of printers. See also encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file.

print server Refers to the computer that receives documents from clients.

Print Server for Macintosh A Services for Macintosh service that enables Macintosh clients to send documents to printers attached to a computer running Windows NT; enables PC clients to send documents to printers anywhere on the AppleTalk network; and enables Macintosh users to spool their documents to the computer running Windows NT Server, thus freeing up their clients to do other tasks. Also called MacPrint.

print sharing The ability for a computer running Windows NT Workstation or Windows NT Server to share a printer on the network. This is done by using the Printers folder or the net share command.

print spooler A collection of dynamic link libraries (DLLs) that receive, process, schedule, and distribute documents.

printer Refers to the software interface between the operating system and the print device. The printer defines where the document will go before it reaches the print device (to a local port, to a file, or to a remote print share), when it will go, and various other aspects of the printing process.

printer driver A program that converts graphics commands into a specific printer language, such as PostScript or PCL. See also font types.

printer fonts Fonts that are built into your printer. These fonts are usually located in the printer's read-only memory (ROM). See also font; font types.

printer permissions Specify the type of access a user or group has to use the printer. The printer permissions are No Access, Print, Manage Documents, and Full Control.

printer window Shows information for one of the printers that you have installed or to which you are connected. For each printer, you can see what documents are waiting to be printed, who owns them, how large they are, and other information.

printing pool Consists of two or more identical print devices associated with one printer.

private volume A Macintosh-accessible volume that is accessible by only one Macintosh user. For a volume to be a private volume, the permissions on its root directory must give the volume's owner all three permissions (Make Changes, See Files, and See Folders), while giving the primary group and everyone categories no permissions at all. When a private volume's owner uses the Chooser to view the volumes available on the server, the private volume is listed; however, no other users can see the private volume when viewing the volumes available on the server. See also Macintosh-accessible volume.

privilege level One of three settings (User, Administrator, or Guest) assigned to each user account. The privilege level a user account has determines the actions that the user can perform on the network. See also Administrator privilege; Guest privilege; User privilege; user account.

process When a program runs, a Windows NT process is created. A process is an object type which consists of an executable program, a set of virtual memory addresses, and one or more threads.

program file A file that starts an application or program. A program file has an .exe, .pif, .com, or .bat filename extension.

program group On the start menu, a collection of applications. Grouping your applications makes them easier to find when you want to start them. See also common group; personal group.

program icon Located at the left of the window title bar, the program icon represents the program being run. Clicking the program icon opens the window menu.

program item An application, accessory, or document represented as an icon in the Start menu or on the desktop.

promiscuous mode A state of a network card in which it passes on to the networking software all the frames that it detects on the network, regardless of the frames' destination address. See also frame; network card.

property In Windows NT Network Monitor, a property refers to a field within a protocol header. A protocol's properties, collectively, indicate the purpose of the protocol.

protocol A set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. These rules govern the content, format, timing, sequencing, and error control of messages exchanged among network devices.

protocol driver A network device driver that implements a protocol, communicating between Windows NT Server and one or more network adapter card drivers. With Services for Macintosh, the AppleTalk Protocol stack is implemented as an NDIS-protocol driver, and is bound to one or more network adapter card drivers.

protocol parser A dynamic-link library (DLL) that identifies the protocols used to send a frame onto the network. See also frame; dynamic-link library.

protocol properties Refers to the elements of information that define a protocol's purpose. Because the purpose of protocols vary, properties differ from one protocol to another.

protocol stack The implementation of a specific protocol family in a computer or other node on the network.

proxy A computer that listens to name query broadcasts and responds for those names not on the local subnet. The proxy communicates with the name server to resolve names and then caches them for a time period. See also caching; DNS; subnet.

PSTN Acronym for public switched telephone network.

pull partner A WINS server that pulls in replicas from its push partner by requesting it and then accepting the pushed replicas. See also WINS.

push partner A WINS server that sends replicas to its pull partner upon receiving a request from it. See also WINS.

Q

queue In Windows NT terminology, a queue refers to a group of documents waiting to be printed. (In NetWare and OS/2 environments, queues are the primary software interface between the application and print device; users submit documents to a queue. However, with Windows NT, the printer is that interface—the document is sent to a printer, not a queue.)

quick format Deletes the file allocation table (FAT) and root directory of a disk but does not scan the disk for bad areas. This function is available in Disk Administrator or when checking disks for errors. See also FAT; root directory.

R

RAID Acronym for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A method used to standardize and categorize fault-tolerant disk systems. Six levels gauge various mixes of performance, reliability, and cost. Windows NT includes three of the RAID levels: Level 0, Level 1, and Level 5.

RAM An acronym for random-access memory. RAM can be read from or written to by the computer or other devices. Information stored in RAM is lost when you turn off the computer. See also memory.

RAS See Remote Access Service.

recursion One of the three key concepts in DNS name resolution. A resolver typically passes a recursive resolution request to its local name server, which tells the name server that the resolver expects a complete answer to the query, not just a pointer to another name server. Recursive resolution effectively puts the workload onto the name server and allows the resolver to be small and simple. See also DNS; iteration.

reduce To minimize a window to an icon by using the Minimize button or the Minimize command. A minimized application continues running, and you can click the icon on the toolbar to make it the active application.

reduced instruction set computing See RISC.

refresh To update displayed information with current data.

registration In Windows NT NetBT name resolution, registration is the process used to register a unique name for each computer (node) on the network. A computer typically registers itself when it starts.

registry The Windows NT registry is a database repository for information about a computer's configuration. It is organized in a hierarchical structure, and is comprised of subtrees and their keys, hives, and value entries. See also hive; key; subtree; Windows NT registry.

registry size limit (RSL) The total amount of space that can be consumed by registry data (hives) is restricted by the registry size limit, which is a kind of universal maximum for registry space that prevents an application form filling the paged pool with registry data. See also hive; paging file.

Remote Access Service (RAS) A service that provides remote networking for telecommuters, mobile workers, and system administrators who monitor and manage servers at multiple branch offices. Users with RAS on a Windows NT computer can dial in to remotely access their networks for services such as file and printer sharing, electronic mail, scheduling, and SQL database access.

remote administration Administration of one computer by an administrator located at another computer and connected to the first computer across the network.

remote logon Occurs when a user is already logged on to a user account and makes a network connection to another computer. See also user account.

remote procedure call (RPC) A message-passing facility that allows a distributed application to call services available on various machines in a network. Used during remote administration of computers. See also remote administration.

Remote Procedure Call service See RPC service.

renew Client computers are periodically required to renew their NetBIOS name registrations with the WINS server. When a client computer first registers with a WINS server, the WINS server returns a message that indicates when the client will need to renew its registration. See also NetBIOS; WINS.

repeaters The most basic LAN connection device, repeaters strengthen the physical transmission signal. A repeater simply takes the electrical signals that reach it and then regenerates them to full strength before passing them on. Repeaters generally extend a single network (rather than link two networks).

replication See directory replication.

replicators One of Windows NT's built-in local groups for workstations and member servers, used for directory replication functions. See also directory replication.

Requests for Comments (RFCs) The official documents of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) that specify the details for protocols included in the TCP/IP family. See also IETF; TCP/IP.

resolution In Windows NetBT name resolution, resolution is the process used to determine the specific address for a computer name.

resolvers DNS clients that query DNS servers for name resolution on networks. See also DNS.

resource Any part of a computer system or a network, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, that can be allotted to a program or a process while it is running, or shared over a local area network.

resource domain A trusting domain that establishes a one-way trust relationship with the master (account) domain, enabling users with accounts in the master domain to use resources in all the other domains. See also domain; trust relationship.

resource fork One of two forks that make up each Macintosh file. The resource fork holds Macintosh operating system resources, such as code, menu, font, and icon definitions. Resource forks have no relevance to PCs, so the resource forks of files on the server are never accessed by PC clients. See also data fork.

response In Windows NT RAS, responses are strings expected from the device, which can contain macros.

RFC See Requests for Comments.

right See user right; permissions.

RIP See routing information protocol.

RISC Acronym for reduced instruction set computing. A type of microprocessor design that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set of instructions. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microprocessor, but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly—usually within a single clock cycle.

roaming user profiles Are enabled when an administrator enters a user profile path into the user account. The first time the user logs off, the local user profile is copied to that location. Thereafter, the server copy of the user profile is downloaded each time the user logs on (if it is more current than the local copy) and is updated each time the user logs off. See also user profile.

root directory The top-level directory on a computer, a partition, or Macintosh-accessible volume. See also directory tree.

router In the Windows NT environment, a router helps LANs and WANs achieve interoperability and connectivity and can link LANs that have different network topologies (such as Ethernet and Token Ring). Routers match packet headers to a LAN segment and choose the best path for the packet, optimizing network performance. In the Macintosh environment, routers are necessary for computers on different physical networks to communicate with each other. Routers maintain a map of the physical networks on a Macintosh internet (network) and forward data received from one physical network to other physical networks. Computers running Windows NT Server with Services for Macintosh can act as routers, and you can also use third-party routing hardware on a network with Services for Macintosh. See also LAN; packet; router; WAN.

routing The process of forwarding packets to other routers until the packet is eventually delivered to a router connected to the specified destination. See also packet; router.

routing information protocol (RIP) Enables a router to exchange routing information with a neighboring router. See also routing.

routing table Controls the routing decisions made by computers running TCP/IP. Routing tables are built automatically by Windows NT based on the IP configuration of your computer. See also routing; dynamic routing table; static routing; TCP/IP.

RPC See remote procedure call.

RPC service The Remote Procedure Call service is the RPC subsystem for Microsoft Windows NT. The RPC subsystem includes the endpoint mapper and other miscellaneous RPC services. See also RPC.

RPC Locator service The Remote Procedure Call Locator service allows distributed applications to use the RPC Name service. The RPC Locator service manages the RPC Name service database. The server side of a distributed application registers its availability with the RPC Locator service. The client side of a distributed application queries the RPC Locator service to find available compatible server applications. See also RPC.

S

SACL Acronym for system access control list. In Windows NT programming, a data structure that consists of smaller data structures called access control elements (ACE). SACL is used in Windows NT security.

SAM Acronym for Security Accounts Manager. See directory database.

SAP In the Windows environment, SAP is an acronym for Service Advertising Protocol, a service that broadcasts shared files, directories, and printers categorized first by domain or workgroup and then by server name. In the context of routing and IPX, SAP is also an acronym for Service Advertising Protocol, used by servers to advertise their services and addresses on a network. Clients use SAP to determine what network resources are available. In NetBeui, SAP is an acronym for Service Access Point, in which each link-layer program identifies itself by registering a unique service access point. Not to be confused with SAP financial database application software for the mainframe computer.

saturation The purity of a color's hue, moving from gray to the pure color.

scavenging Cleaning up the WINS database. See also WINS.

Schedule service Supports and is required for use of the at command. The at command can schedule commands and programs to run on a computer at a specified time and date.

screen buffer The size reserved in memory for the command prompt display.

screen elements The parts that make up a window or dialog box, such as the title bar, the Minimize and Maximize buttons, the window borders, and the scroll bars.

screen fonts Fonts displayed on your screen. Soft-font manufacturers often provide screen fonts that closely match the soft fonts for your printer. This ensures that your documents look the same on the screen as they do when printed. See also font; font types.

screen saver A moving picture or pattern that appears on your screen when you have not used the mouse or the keyboard for a specified period of time. Use the Display option in Control Panel or right click on the desktop for properties to select a screen saver.

scroll To move through text or graphics (up, down, left, or right) in order to see parts of the file that cannot fit on the screen.

scroll arrow An arrow on either end of a scroll bar that you use to scroll through the contents of the window or list box. Click the scroll arrow to scroll one screen at a time, or continue pressing the mouse button while pointing at the scroll arrow to scroll continuously.

scroll bar A bar that appears at the right and/or bottom edge of a window or list box whose contents are not completely visible. Each scroll bar contains two scroll arrows and a scroll box, which enable you to scroll through the contents of the window or list box.

scroll box In a scroll bar, a small box that shows the position of information currently visible in the window or list box relative to the contents of the entire window.

scroll buffer The area in memory that holds information that does not fit on the screen. You can use the scroll bars to scroll through the information.

SCSI Acronym for small computer system interface, a standard high-speed parallel interface defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). A SCSI interface is used for connecting microcomputers to peripheral devices such as hard disks and printers, and to other computers and local area networks.

Search button See Find tab.

section header In Windows NT RAS, a section header is a string of up to 32 characters between square brackets which identifies the specific device to which the section applies.

security accounts manager See Windows NT Server Directory Services.

secure attention sequence A series of keystrokes (CTRL+ALT+DEL) which will always display the Windows NT operating system logon screen.

secure communications channel Created when computers at each end of a connection are satisfied that the computer on the other end has identified itself correctly using its computer account. See also computer account.

security A means of ensuring that shared files can be accessed only by authorized users.

security database See directory database.

security host A third-party authentication device that verifies whether a caller from a remote client is authorized to connect to the Remote Access server. This verification supplements security already authorized to connect to the Remote-Access server.

security ID A unique name that identifies a logged-on user to the security system. Security IDs (SIDs) can identify one user, or a group of users.

security identifier See security ID.

security log Records security events. This helps track changes to the security system and identify any possible breaches of security. For example, depending on the Audit settings in User Manager or User Manager for Domains, attempts to log on the local computer may be recorded in the security log. The security log contains both valid and invalid logon attempts as well as events related to resource use (such as creating, opening, or deleting files.) See also event.

security policies For Windows NT Workstation, the security policies consist of the Account, User Rights, and Audit policies, and are managed using User Manager. For a Windows NT Server domain, the security policies consist of the Account, User Rights, Audit, and Trust Relationships policies, and are managed using User Manager for Domains.

See Files The Macintosh-style permission that give users the right to open a folder and see the files in the folder. For example, a folder that has See Files and See Folders Macintosh-style permissions is given the Windows NT-style R (Read) permission. See also permissions.

See Folders The Macintosh-style permission that gives users the right to open a folder and see the files contained in that folder. See also permissions.

seed router In the Macintosh environment, a seed router initializes and broadcasts routing information about one or more physical networks. This information tells routers where to send each packet of data. A router on an AppleTalk network that initially defines the network number(s) and zone(s) for a network. Services for Macintosh servers can function as seed routers, and you can also use third-party hardware routers as seed routers. See also packet; router.

select To mark an item so that a subsequent action can be carried out on that item. You usually select an item by clicking it with a mouse or pressing a key. After selecting an item, you choose the action that you want to affect the item.

selection cursor The marking device that shows where you are in a window, menu, or dialog box and what you have selected. The selection cursor can appear as a highlight or as a dotted rectangle around text.

sequence number The identifier with which TCP marks packets before sending them. The sequence numbers allow the receiving system to properly order the packets on the receiving system. See also packet; TCP.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) An older industry standard that is part of Windows NT RAS to ensure interoperabability with third-party remote access software.

server In general, refers to a computer that provides shared resources to network users. See also member server.

server application A Windows NT application that can create objects for linking or embedding into other documents. For distributed applications, the application that responds to a client application. See also client application, DCOM, DCOM Configuration tool; embedded object; linked object.

Server Manager In Windows NT Server, an application used to view and administer domains, workgroups, and computers.

Server service Provides RPC (remote procedure call) support, and file, print, and named pipe sharing. See also named pipe; RPC.

server zone The AppleTalk zone on which a server appears. On a Phase 2 network, a server appears in the default zone of the server's default network. See also default network; default zone; desired zone; zone.

service A process that performs a specific system function and often provides an application programming interface (API) for other processes to call. Windows NT services are RPC-enabled, meaning that their API routines can be called from remote computers. See also API; RPC.

Services for Macintosh See Windows NT Server Services for Macintosh (SFM).

session A link between two network devices, such as a client and a server. A session between a client and server consists of one or more connections from the client to the server.

SFM Acronym for Windows NT Services for Macintosh.

share To make resources, such as directories and printers, available to others.

share name A name that refers to a shared resource on a server. Each shared directory on a server has a share name, used by PC users to refer to the directory. Users of Macintoshes use the name of the Macintosh-accessible volume that corresponds to a directory, which may be the same as the share name. See also Macintosh-accessible volume.

share permissions Are used to restrict a shared resource's availability over the network to only certain users.

shared directory A directory that network users can connect to.

shared network directory See shared directory.

shared resource Any device, data, or program that is used by more than one other device or program. For Windows NT, shared resources refer to any resource that is made available to network users, such as directories, files, printers, and named pipes. Also refers to a resource on a server that is available to network users. See also named pipe.

shortcut key A key or key combination, available for some commands, that you can press to carry out a command without first selecting a menu. Shortcut keys are listed to the right of commands on a menu.

short name A valid MS-DOS or OS/2 8.3 filename (with up to eight characters followed by a period and a three-character extension) that the computer running Windows NT Server creates for every Macintosh folder name or filename on the server. PC users refer to files on the server by their short names; Macintosh users refer to them by their long names. See also long name; name mapping.

SID See security ID.

silent mode During IP routing in silent mode, the computer listens to RIP broadcasts and updates its route table but does not advertise its own routes. See also RIP; routing; routing table.

simple device A device that you use without specifying a related media file. An audio compact-disc player is a simple device.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) A protocol used by SNMP consoles and agents to communicate. In Windows NT, the SNMP service is used to get and set status information about a host on a TCP/IP network. See also SNMP; TCP/IP.

single user logon Windows NT network users can connect to multiple servers, domains, and applications with a single network logon.

SLIP See Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SMB Acronym for Server Message Block, a file sharing protocol designed to allow systems to transparently access files that reside on remote systems.

SMS Acronym for System Management Server, part of the Windows NT BackOffice suite. SMS includes desktop management and software distribution that significantly automates the task of upgrading software on client computers.

SMTP Acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that governs the exchange of electronic mail between message transfer agents.

SNA See System Network Architecture.

snapshot A copy of main memory or video memory at a given instant, sent to a printer or hard disk. A graphical image of the video screen can be saved by taking a snapshot of video memory, more commonly called a screen dump.

snifferSee network sniffer.

Sniffer files Files saved from Network General Sniffer, a third-party protocol analyzer. See also network sniffer.

SNMP See Simple Network Management Protocol.

socket A bidirectional pipe for incoming and outgoing data between networked computers. The Windows Sockets API is a networking API used by programmers creating TCP/IP-based sockets applications. See also API; named pipe.

Sockets Windows Sockets is a Windows implementation of the widely used UC Berkeley sockets API. Microsoft TCP/IP, NWLink, and AppleTalk protocols use this interface. Sockets interfaces between programs and the transport protocol and works as a bi-directional pipe for incoming and outgoing data. See also API; named pipe; socket.

source directory The directory that contains the file or files you intend to copy or move.

source document The document where a linked or embedded object was originally created. See also embedded object; linked object.

SPAP Acronym for Shiva Password Authentication Protocol, a two-way (reversible) encryption mechanism employed by Shiva. Windows NT Workstation, when connecting to a Shiva LAN Rover, uses SPAP, as does a Shiva client connecting to a Windows NT Server. See also encryption.

special access permissions On NTFS volumes, a custom set of permissions. You can customize permissions on files and directories by selecting the individual components of the standard sets of permissions. See also access permissions.

split bar Divides Windows NT Explorer into two parts: The directory tree is displayed on the left, and the contents of the current directory are on the right. See also directory tree.

spooler Software that accepts documents sent by a user to be printed, and then stores those documents and sends them, one by one, to available printer(s). See also spooling.

spooling A process on a server in which print documents are stored on a disk until a printing device is ready to process them. A spooler accepts each document from each client, stores it, then sends it to a printing device when it is ready.

SQL Acronym for structured query language, a database programming language used for accessing, querying, and otherwise managing information in a relational database system.

stabilize During subdirectory replication, when a subdirectory is stabilized, the export server waits two minutes after changes before exporting the subdirectory. The waiting period allows time for subsequent changes to take place so that all intended changes are recorded before being replicated. See also directory replication; export server; subtree.

stand-alone server See member server.

static object Information that has been pasted into a document. Unlike embedded or linked objects, static objects cannot be changed from within the document. The only way you can change a static object is to delete it from the document, change it in the application used to create it, and paste it into the document again. See also embedded object; linked object.

static routing Static routing limits you to fixed routing tables, as opposed to dynamically updating the routing tables. See also routing table; dynamic routing.

status bar A line of information related to the application in the window. Usually located at the bottom of a window. Not all windows have a status bar.

string A data structure composed of a sequence of characters, usually representing human-readable text.

stripe set Refers to the saving of data across identical partitions on different drives. A stripe set does not provide fault tolerance; however stripe sets with parity do. See also fault tolerance; partition; stripe sets with parity.

stripe sets with parity A method of data protection in which data is striped in large blocks across all the disks in an array. Data redundancy is provided by the parity information. This method provides fault tolerance. See also fault tolerance; stripe set.

subdirectory A directory within a directory. Also called a folder within a folder.

subkey A key within a key. Subkeys are analogous to subdirectories in the registry hierarchy. Keys and subkeys are similar to the section heading in .ini files; however subkeys can carry out functions. See also key; Windows NT Registry.

subnet A portion of a network, which may be a physically independent network segment, which shares a network address with other portions of the network and is distinguished by a subnet number. A subnet is to a network what a network is to an internet.

subnet mask A 32-bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID. See also IP address; packet.

substitution macros Are placeholders that are replaced in command strings.

subtree During directory replication, this refers to the export subdirectory and all of its subdirectories. See also directory replication.

swap file See paging file.

switched circuit See dial-up line.

synchronize To replicate the domain database from the primary domain controller (PDC) to one backup domain controller (BDC) of the domain, or to all the BDCs of a domain. This is usually performed automatically by the system, but can also be invoked manually by an administrator. See also domain; BDC; PDC.

syntax The order in which you must type a command and the elements that follow the command. Windows NT commands have up to four elements: command name, parameters, switches, and values.

system default profile In Windows NT Server, the user profile that is loaded when Windows NT is running and no user is logged on. When the Begin Logon dialog box is visible, the system default profile is loaded. See also user default profile, user profile.

system disk A disk that contains the MS-DOS system files necessary to start MS-DOS.

system log The system log contains events logged by the Windows NT components. For example, the failure of a driver or other system component to load during startup is recorded in the system log. Use Event Viewer to view the system log.

System Network Architecture (SNA) System Network Architecture is a communications framework developed by IBM. Microsoft System Network Architecture (SNA) is an optional solution that provides a gateway connection between personal computer LANs or WANs and IBM mainframe and AS/400 hosts. See also AS/400; gateway.

system partition The volume that has the hardware-specific files needed to load Windows NT. See also partition.

system policy Is created with the System Policy Editor to control user work environments and actions, and to enforce system configuration for Windows 95. System policy can be implemented for specific users, groups, computers, or for all users. System policy for users overwrites settings in the current user area of the registry, and system policy for computers overwrites the current local machine area of the registry. See also registry.

systemroot The name of the directory that contains Windows NT files. The name of this directory is specified when Windows NT is installed.

T

tape set A tape set (sometimes referred to as a tape family) in Windows NT Backup is a sequence of tapes such that each tape is a continuation of the backup on the previous tape. See also backup sets; backup types.

TAPI Acronym for telephony API, used by programs to make data/fax/voice calls, including the Windows NT applets HyperTerminal, Dial-up Networking, Phone Dialer, and other Win32 communications applications written for Windows NT.

Task list A window that shows all running applications and their status. View the Task list in the Applications tab in Task Manager.

Task Manager Task Manager enables you to start, end, or run applications, end processes (either an application, application component, or system process), and view CPU and memory use data. Task Manager gives you a simple, quick view of how each process (application or service) is using CPU and memory resources. (Note: In previous versions of Windows NT, Task List handled some of these functions). To run Task Manager, right-click on the toolbar and then click Task Manager.

TCP See transmission control protocol.

TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TDI See Transport Driver Interface.

template accounts Accounts which are not actually used by real users but serve as a basis for the real accounts (for administrative purposes).

terminate-and-stay-resident program (TSR) A program running under MS-DOS that remains loaded in memory even when it is not running so that it can be quickly invoked for a specific task performed while any other application is operating.

text box In a dialog box, a box in which you type information needed to carry out a command. The text box may be blank or may contain text when the dialog box opens.

text file A file containing text characters (letters, numbers, and symbols) but no formatting information. A text file can be a "plain" ASCII file that most computers can read. Text file can also refer to a word-processing file. See also ASCII file.

text-file transfer A method for transferring files from HyperTerminal to a remote computer. With this method, files are transferred as ASCII files with minimal formatting characters, such as linefeeds and carriage returns. All font-formatting information is removed. See also ASCII file.

text-only An ASCII file that contains no formatting. See also ASCII file.

thread Threads are objects within processes that run program instructions. They allow concurrent operations within a process and enable one process to run different parts of its program on different processors simultaneously.

timeout If a device is not performing a task, the amount of time the computer should wait before detecting it as an error.

time slice The amount of processor time allocated to an application, usually measured in milliseconds.

title bar The horizontal bar (at the top of a window) that contains the title of the window or dialog box. On many windows, the title bar also contains the program icon and the Maximize, Minimize, and Close buttons.

Token Ring A type of network media that connects clients in a closed ring and uses token passing to enable clients to use the network. See also Ethernet, FDDI, and LocalTalk.

toolbar A series of icons or shortcut buttons providing quick access to commands. Usually located directly below the menu bar. Not all windows have a toolbar.

topic Information in the Help window. A Help topic usually begins with a title and contains information about a particular task, command, or dialog box.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A connection-based Internet protocol responsible for breaking data into packets, which the IP protocol sends over the network. This protocol provides a reliable, sequenced communication stream for network communication. See also IP; packet.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) A set of networking protocols that provide communications across interconnected networks made up of computers with diverse hardware architectures and various operating systems. TCP/IP includes standards for how computers communicate and conventions for connecting networks and routing traffic.

transport driver interface (TDI) In Windows networking, the common interface for network components that communicate at the Session layer.

trap In SNMP, a discrete block of data that indicates that the request failed authentication. The SNMP service can send a trap when it receives a request for information that does not contain the correct community name and that does not match an accepted hostname for the service. Trap destinations are the names or IP addresses of hosts to which the SNMP service is to send traps with community names. See also IP address; SNMP.

trigger A set of conditions that, when met, initiate an action. For example, before using Network Monitor to capture data from the network, you can set a trigger to stop the capture or to execute a program or command file.

Trojan horse A program that masquerades as another common program in an attempt to receive information. An example of a Trojan horse is a program that masquerades as a system logon to retrieve user names and password information, which the writers of the Trojan horse can use later to break into the system.

TrueType fonts Fonts that are scalable and sometimes generated as bitmaps or soft fonts, depending on the capabilities of your printer. TrueType fonts can be sized to any height, and they print exactly as they appear on the screen.

trust See trust relationship.

trust relationship A link between domains that enables pass-through authentication, in which a trusting domain honors the logon authentications of a trusted domain. With trust relationships, a user who has only one user account in one domain can potentially access the entire network. User accounts and global groups defined in a trusted domain can be given rights and resource permissions in a trusting domain, even though those accounts don't exist in the trusting domain's directory database. See also directory database; global group; pass-through authentication; user account.

trust relationships policy A security policy that determines which domains are trusted and which domains are trusting domains. See also trust relationship.

TSR See terminate-and-stay-resident program.

two-way trust relationship Each domain trusts user accounts in the other domain to use its resources. Users can log on from computers in either domain to the domain that contains their account. See also trust relationship.

type See file type.

Type 1 fonts Scalable fonts designed to work with PostScript devices. See also font; font types; PostScript printer.

U

uninterruptible power supply (UPS) See UPS.

UAM See user authentication module.

UDP See User Datagram Protocol.

unavailable An unavailable button or command is displayed in light gray instead of black, and it cannot be clicked.

UNC name Acronym for universal naming convention name, a full Windows NT name of a resource on a network. It conforms to the \\servername\sharename syntax, where servername is the server's name and sharename is the name of the shared resource. UNC names of directories or files can also include the directory path under the share name, with the following syntax: \\servername\sharename\directory\filename.

unicast datagram An IP datagram sent to one host. See also Internet Protocol (IP); multicast datagram; broadcast datagram.

UPS Acronym for uninterruptible power supply, a battery-operated power supply connected to a computer to keep the system running during a power failure.

UPS service Manages an uninterruptible power supply connected to a computer. See also UPS.

user account Consists of all the information that defines a user to Windows NT. This includes such things as the user name and password required for the user to log on, the groups in which the user account has membership, and the rights and permissions the user has for using the system and accessing its resources. For Windows NT Workstation, user accounts are managed with User Manager. For Windows NT Server, user accounts are managed with User Manager for Domains. See also group.

user account database See directory database.

user authentication module Software component that prompts clients for their user names and passwords. See also cleartext passwords; encrypted passwords.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A TCP complement that offers a connectionless datagram service that guarantees neither delivery nor correct sequencing of delivered packets (much like IP). See also datagram; IP; packet.

user default profile In Windows NT Server, the user profile that is loaded by a server when a user's assigned profile cannot be accessed for any reason; when a user without an assigned profile logs on to the computer for the first time; or when a user logs on to the Guest account. See also system default profile; user profile.

User Manager A Windows NT Workstation tool used to manage the security for a workstation. User Manager administers user accounts, groups, and security policies.

User Manager for Domains A Windows NT Server tool used to manage security for a domain or an individual computer. User Manager for Domains administers user accounts, groups, and security policies.

user name A unique name identifying a user account to Windows NT. An account's user name cannot be identical to any other group name or user name of its own domain or workgroup. See also user account.

user password The password stored in each user's account. Each user generally has a unique user password and must type that password when logging on or accessing a server. See also password; volume password.

User privilege One of three privilege levels you can assign to a Windows NT user account. Every user account has one of the three privilege levels (Administrator, Guest, and User). Accounts with User privilege are regular users of the network; most accounts on your network will probably have User privilege. See also user account; Administrator privilege; Guest privilege.

user profile Configuration information that can be retained on a user-by-user basis, and is saved in user profiles. This information includes all the per-user settings of the Windows NT environment, such as the desktop arrangement, personal program groups and the program items in those groups, screen colors, screen savers, network connections, printer connections, mouse settings, window size and position, and more. When a user logs on, the user's profile is loaded and the user's Windows NT environment is configured according to that profile. See also personal groups; program item.

user rights Define a user's access to a computer or domain and the actions that a user can perform on the computer or domain. User rights permit actions such as logging onto a computer or network, adding or deleting users in a workstation or domain, and so forth.

user rights policy Manages the assignment of rights to groups and user accounts. See also user account; user rights.

users In the Macintosh environment, a special group that contains all users who have user permissions on the server. When a Macintosh user assigns permissions to everyone, those permissions are given to the groups users and guests. See also everyone category; guests.

V

value entry The string of data that appears in the right pane of a registry window and which defines the value of the currently selected key. A value entry has three parts: name, datatype, and the value itself. See also key; subkey.

Van Jacobsen header compression A TCP/IP network layer compression technique, VJ compression reduces the size of IP and TCP headers. See also IP; TCP; TCP/IP.

variables In programming, a variable is a named storage location capable of containing a certain type of data that can be modified during program execution. System environment variables are defined by Windows NT Server and are the same no matter who is logged on at the computer. (Administrator group members can add new variables or change the values, however.) User environment variables can be different for each user of a particular computer. They include any environment variables you want to define of variables defined by your applications, such as the path where application files are located.

VDD Acronym for virtual device drivers, which enable MS-DOS-based and 16-bit Windows-based applications to run on Windows NT.

VDM Acronym for virtual DOS machine. Simulates an MS-DOS environment so that MS-DOS-based and Windows-based applications can run on Windows NT.

verify operation Occurs after all files are backed up or restored, if specified. A verify operation compares files on disk to files that have been written to tape. See also backup types.

virtual memory The space on your hard disk that Windows NT uses as if it were actually memory. Windows NT does this through the use of paging files. The benefit of using virtual memory is that you can run more applications at one time than your system's physical memory would otherwise allow. The drawbacks are the disk space required for the virtual-memory paging file and the decreased execution speed when paging is required. See also paging file.

virtual printer memory In a PostScript printer, a part of memory that stores font information. The memory in PostScript printers is divided into two areas: banded memory and virtual memory. The banded memory contains graphics and page-layout information needed to print your documents. The virtual memory contains any font information that is sent to your printer either when you print a document or when you download fonts. See also font types; PostScript printer.

virus A program that attempts to spread from computer to computer and either cause damage (by erasing or corrupting data) or annoy users (by printing messages or altering what is displayed on the screen).

volume A partition or collection of partitions that have been formatted for use by a file system. See also Macintosh-accessible volume; partition.

volume password An optional, case-sensitive password you can assign to a Macintosh-accessible volume when you configure the volume. To access the volume, a user must type the volume password. See also Macintosh-accessible volume; user password.

volume set A combination of partitions on a physical disk that appear as one logical drive. See also logical drive; partition.

VPN Acronym for virtual private network, a remote LAN that can be accessed through the Internet using the new PPTP. See also PPTP.

W

wallpaper A picture or drawing stored as a bitmap file (a file that has a .bmp extension).

WAN See wide area network

warning beep The sound that your computer makes when you encounter an error or try to perform a task that Windows NT does not recognize.

wide area network (WAN) A communications network that connects geographically separated areas.

wildcard A character that represents one or more characters. The question mark (?) wildcard can be used to represent any single character, and the asterisk (*) wildcard can be used to represent any character or group of characters that might match that position in other filenames.

window A rectangular area on your screen in which you view an application or document. You can open, close, and move windows, and change the size of most windows. You can open several windows at a time, and you can often reduce a window to an icon or enlarge it to fill the entire desktop.

window menu A menu that contains commands you can use to manipulate a window. You click the program icon or document icon at the left of the title bar to open the window menu.

Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) A name resolution service that resolves Windows networking computer names to IP addresses in a routed environment. A WINS server handles name registrations, queries, and releases. See also IP address; routing.

Windows NT application Used as a shorthand term to refer to an application that is designed to run with Windows NT and does not run without Windows NT. All Windows NT applications follow similar conventions for arrangement of menus, style of dialog boxes, and keyboard and mouse use.

Windows NT browser system Consists of a master browser, backup browser, and client systems. The master browser maintains the browse list—of all the available domains and servers—and periodically sends copies to the backup browsers. See also browse; master browser.

Windows NT Registry A hierarchical database that provides a central repository to store configuration information about hardware and user accounts. It is comprised of subtrees and their keys, hives, and value entries. See also hive; key; subtree; user account.

Windows NT Server A superset of Windows NT Workstation, Windows NT Server provides centralized management and security, fault tolerance, and additional connectivity. See also fault tolerance; Windows NT Workstation.

Windows NT Server Directory Services A Windows NT protected subsystem that maintains the directory database and provides an application programming interface (API) for accessing the database. See also API; directory database.

Windows NT Server Services for Macintosh A software component of Windows NT Server that allows Macintosh users access to the computer running Windows NT Server. The services provided with this component allow PC and Macintosh users to share files and resources, such as printers on the AppleTalk network or those attached to the Windows NT Server. See also File Server for Macintosh; Print Server for Macintosh.

Windows NT Workstation The portable, secure, 32-bit, preemptive multitasking member of the Microsoft Windows operating system family.

Windows Sockets See Sockets.

WINS See Windows Internet Name Service.

workgroup For Windows NT, a workgroup is a collection of computers that are grouped for viewing purposes. Each workgroup is identified by a unique name. See also domain.

working set Every program running can use a portion of physical memory, its working set, which is the current number of physical memory bytes used by or allocated by a process.

workstation Any networked Macintosh or PC using server resources. See also member server; primary domain controller; backup domain controller.

Workstation service Provides network connections and communications.

World Wide Web (WWW) The software, protocols, conventions, and information that enable hypertext and multimedia publishing of resources on different computers around the world. See also Internet; HTML.

WOSA Acronym for Microsoft Windows Open System Architecture, which specifies an open set of APIs for integrating Windows-based computers with back-end services on a broad range of vendor's systems. WOSA consists of an extensible set of APIs that enable Windows-based desktop applications to access available information without having to know anything about the type of network in use, the types of computers in the enterprise, or types of back-end services available. As a result, if the network computers or services change, the desktop applications built using WOSA won't require rewriting. See also API.

WOW Acronym for Win16 on Win32. The translation of Windows 3.1-based application calls to standard mode for RISC-based computers and 386 enhanced mode for x86-based computers.

wrap To continue to the next line rather than stopping when the cursor reaches the end of the current line.

X

X.25 A recommendation published by the CCITT international communications standards organization that defines the connection between a terminal and a packet-switching network. An X.25 network is a type of packet-switching network that routes units of information (packets) as specified by X.25 and is used in public data communications networks. See also packet.

X.25 smart card A hardware card with a PAD (packet assemblers/disassemblers) embedded in it. See also PAD; X.25.

XModem/CRC Protocol for transmitting binary files that uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to detect any transmission errors. Both computers must be set to transmit and receive eight data bits per character.

XOR Acronym for exclusive OR. A Boolean operation in which the Windows NT Server stripe-sets-with-parity form of fault tolerance maintains an XOR of the total data to provide data redundancy. This enables the reconstruction of missing data (on a failed disk or sector) from the remaining disks in the stripe set with parity. See also stripe set with parity; fault tolerance.

Z

zone In the Macintosh environment, a zone is a logical grouping which simplifies browsing the network for resources, such as servers and printers. It is similar to a domain in Windows NT Server networking. In a DNS (Domain Name System) database, a zone is a subtree of the DNS database that is administered as a single separate entity, a DNS name server. This administrative unit can consist of a single domain or a domain with subdomains. A DNS zone administrator sets up one or more name servers for the zone. See also DNS; domain.

zone list In the Macintosh environment, a zone list includes all of the zones associated with a particular network. Not to be confused with Windows NT DNS zones



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