Chapter 30 - Microsoft TCP/IP and Related Services for Windows NT
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite is a standard set of networking protocols that govern how data passes between networked computers. With TCP/IP you can communicate with Windows NT platforms, with devices that use other Microsoft networking products, and with non-Microsoft systems (such as UNIX systems). TCP/IP is the primary protocol of the Internet and the World Wide Web. It is also the primary protocol for many private internetworks, which are networks that connect local area networks (LANs) together.
For procedural information about installing and configuring TCP/IP under Windows NT, see the online Help. For more detailed information about TCP/IP and its integration with Windows NT and other networking products, see the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit Networking Guide.
Benefits of Using TCP/IP
Microsoft TCP/IP for Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation offers the following advantages:
Core Technology and Third-Party Add-Ons
Microsoft TCP/IP is a full-featured implementation of the protocol suite and related services. It includes the following:
Figure 30.1 shows the elements of Microsoft TCP/IP alongside the variety of additional applications and connectivity utilities provided by Microsoft and other third-party vendors.
Figure 30.1 Microsoft TCP/IP Core Technology and Third-party Add-ons
Microsoft TCP/IP for Windows NT does not include a complete suite of TCP/IP connectivity utilities or server services (daemons). Many such applications and utilities — available in the public domain or from third-party vendors — are compatible with Microsoft TCP/IP.
Note For computers running Windows for Workgroups, you can install Microsoft TCP/IP-32. For computers running MS-DOS, you can install the Microsoft Network Client for MS-DOS. Both are available on the Windows NT Server compact disc. For installation information, see the Windows NT Server Concepts and Planning book.
Requests for Comments (RFCs) are an evolving series of reports, proposals for protocols, and protocol standards used by the Internet community. TCP/IP standards are defined in RFCs published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other working groups. Table 30.1 lists the RFCs supported in this version of Microsoft TCP/IP (and Microsoft Remote Access Service).
1 The Microsoft DHCP server does not support BOOTP. BOOTP requests are silently ignored. However, a DHCP server and a BOOTP server can coexist.
2 Windows NT Server can be configured to act as a BOOTP relay agent.
Note For details on retrieving RFCs by means of FTP or email, send an email message to "firstname.lastname@example.org" with the subject "getting rfcs" and the message body "help: ways_to_get_rfcs".
RFCs can be obtained by means of FTP from nis.nsf.net, nisc.jvnc.net, venera.isi.edu, wuarchive.wustl.edu, src.doc.ic.ac.uk, ftp.concert.net, ds.internic.net, or nic.ddn.mil.
This section summarizes how Microsoft TCP/IP works with Windows NT to provide enterprise internetworking solutions. For a more detailed discussion of these points, see the Microsoft Windows NT Resource Kit Networking Guide.
Using TCP/IP for Scalability
TCP/IP delivers a scalable internetworking technology widely supported by hardware and software vendors.
When TCP/IP is used as the enterprise-networking protocol, the Windows-based networking solutions from Microsoft can be used on an existing internetwork to provide client and server support for TCP/IP and connectivity utilities. These solutions include
As shown in Figure 30.2, the current version of TCP/IP for Windows NT also supports IP routing in systems with multiple network adapters attached to separate physical networks (multihomed systems).
Figure 30.2 TCP/IP for Windows NT Supports IP Routing for Multihomed Systems
Using TCP/IP in Heterogeneous Networks
Because most modern operating systems support TCP/IP protocols, heterogeneous computers on an internetwork can use simple networking applications and utilities to share information. TCP/IP enables Windows NT to communicate with many non-Microsoft systems, including
Figure 30.3 Microsoft TCP/IP Connectivity
As shown in Figure 30.3, Microsoft TCP/IP provides a framework for interoperable heterogeneous networking. The modular architecture of Windows NT networking with its transport-independent services contributes to the strength of this framework. For example, Windows NT supports the following transport protocols:
Note Transport protocols (such as DECnet and OSI) from third-party vendors can also be used by Windows NT networking services.
Using TCP/IP with Third-Party Software
TCP/IP is a common denominator for heterogeneous networking, and Windows Sockets is a standard used by application developers. Together they provide a framework for cross-platform client-server development.
The Windows Sockets standard defines a networking API that developers use to create applications for the entire family of Microsoft Windows operating systems. Windows Sockets is an open standard that is part of the Microsoft Windows Open System Architecture (WOSA) initiative. It is a public specification based on Berkeley UNIX sockets, which means that UNIX applications can be quickly ported to Microsoft Windows and Windows NT. Windows Sockets provides a single standard programming interface supported by all major vendors implementing TCP/IP for Windows systems.
The Windows Sockets standard ensures compatibility with Windows-based TCP/IP utilities developed by many vendors. This includes third-party applications for X Windows, sophisticated terminal emulation software, NFS, electronic mail packages, and more. Because Windows NT offers compatibility with 16-bit Windows Sockets, applications created for Windows 3.x Windows Sockets run on Windows NT without modification or recompilation.
For example, third-party applications for X Windows provide strong connectivity solutions by means of X Windows servers, database servers, and terminal emulation. With such applications, a computer running Windows NT can work as an X Windows server while retaining compatibility with applications created for Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 3.x, and MS-DOS on the same system. Other third-party software includes X Windows client libraries for Windows NT, which enable developers to write X Windows client applications on Windows NT that can be run and displayed remotely on X Windows servers.
The TCP/IP utilities for Windows NT use Windows Sockets, as do 32-bit TCP/IP applications developed by third parties. Windows NT also uses the Windows Sockets interface to support Services for Macintosh and IPX/SPX in NWLink. Under Windows NT, 16-bit Windows-based applications created under the Windows Sockets standard will run without modification or recompilation. Most TCP/IP users will use programs that comply with the Windows Sockets standard (such as ftp or telnet) or third-party applications.
The Windows Sockets standard allows a developer to create an application with a single common interface and a single executable that can run over many TCP/IP implementations. Windows Sockets is designed to:
Typical Windows Sockets applications include graphic connectivity utilities, terminal emulation software, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and electronic mail clients, network printing utilities, SQL client applications, and corporate client-server applications.
Specifications for Windows Sockets are available on numerous Internet sites such as www.microsoft.com, the Microsoft Network (MSN™), and CompuServe.