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Win32/Bubnix


Win32/Bubnix is a generic detection for a kernel-mode driver installed by other malware that hides its presence on an affected computer by blocking registry and file access to itself. The trojan may report its installation to a remote server, download and distribute spam e-mail messages and could download and execute arbitrary files.


What to do now

Manual removal is not recommended for this threat. Use the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool, Microsoft Security Essentials, Microsoft Safety Scanner, or another up-to-date scanning and removal tool to detect and remove this threat and other unwanted software from your computer. For more information on Microsoft security products, see http://www.microsoft.com/protect/products/computer/default.mspx.

Threat behavior

Win32/Bubnix is a generic detection for a kernel-mode driver installed by other malware that hides its presence on an affected computer by blocking registry and file access to itself. The trojan may report its installation to a remote server, download and distribute spam e-mail messages and could download and execute arbitrary files.
Installation
Win32/Bubnix is installed by other malware such as TrojanDownloader:Win32/Bubnix.A.
The trojan may be present as a randomly named file with a service with the same name, as in the following example:
 
file name: <%SystemRoot%>\System32\drivers\gkcldzhg.sys
service name: "gkcldzhg"
 
The trojan creates a device name as "\Device\<GUID string>" as in the following example:
 
\Device\{2914E018-A52C-9C7D-A1BA-606512FF990B}
 
Win32/Bubnix injects and runs malicious code in the process "services.exe" and periodically rewrites its file to prevent removal. It also uses rootkit methods to hide its file and registry entries.
Payload
Downloads and executes arbitrary files
Win32/Bubnix contacts a remote server to report its installation on the affected computer. The trojan attempts to download and execute arbitrary files from a predefined Web address such as "go-thailand-now.com".
 
Distributes spam
The trojan retrieves configuration data containing spam information from a remote server and attempts to distribute spam via servers listed in mail exchange (MX) records returned from following domains:
  • gmail.com
  • wikipedia.org
  • digg.com
  • google.com
  • youtube.com
 
Analysis by Scott Molenkamp

Symptoms

There are no common symptoms associated with this threat. Alert notifications from installed antivirus software may be the only symptom(s).

Prevention

Take the following steps to help prevent infection on your computer:
  • Enable a firewall on your computer.
  • Get the latest computer updates for all your installed software.
  • Use up-to-date antivirus software.
  • Limit user privileges on the computer.
  • Use caution when opening attachments and accepting file transfers.
  • Use caution when clicking on links to web pages.
  • Avoid downloading pirated software.
  • Protect yourself against social engineering attacks.
  • Use strong passwords.
Enable a firewall on your computer
Use a third-party firewall product or turn on the Microsoft Windows Internet Connection Firewall.
Get the latest computer updates
Updates help protect your computer from viruses, worms, and other threats as they are discovered. It is important to install updates for all the software that is installed in your computer. These are usually available from vendor websites.
 
You can use the Automatic Updates feature in Windows to automatically download future Microsoft security updates while your computer is on and connected to the Internet.
Use up-to-date antivirus software
Most antivirus software can detect and prevent infection by known malicious software. To help protect you from infection, you should always run antivirus software, such as Microsoft Security Essentials, that is updated with the latest signature files. For more information, see http://www.microsoft.com/security/antivirus/av.aspx.
Limit user privileges on the computer
Starting with Windows Vista and Windows 7, Microsoft introduced User Account Control (UAC), which, when enabled, allowed users to run with least user privileges. This scenario limits the possibility of attacks by malware and other threats that require administrative privileges to run.
 
You can configure UAC in your computer to meet your preferences:
Use caution when opening attachments and accepting file transfers
Exercise caution with email and attachments received from unknown sources, or received unexpectedly from known sources.  Use extreme caution when accepting file transfers from known or unknown sources.
Use caution when clicking on links to web pages
Exercise caution with links to web pages that you receive from unknown sources, especially if the links are to a webpage that you are not familiar with, unsure of the destination of, or suspicious of. Malicious software may be installed in your computer simply by visiting a webpage with harmful content.
Avoid downloading pirated software
Threats may also be bundled with software and files that are available for download on various torrent sites. Downloading "cracked" or "pirated" software from these sites carries not only the risk of being infected with malware, but is also illegal. For more information, see 'The risks of obtaining and using pirated software'.
Protect yourself from social engineering attacks
While attackers may attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in hardware or software to compromise a computer, they also attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in human behavior to do the same. When an attacker attempts to take advantage of human behavior to persuade the affected user to perform an action of the attacker's choice, it is known as 'social engineering'. Essentially, social engineering is an attack against the human interface of the targeted computer. For more information, see 'What is social engineering?'.
Use strong passwords
Attackers may try to gain access to your Windows account by guessing your password. It is therefore important that you use a strong password – one that cannot be easily guessed by an attacker. A strong password is one that has at least eight characters, and combines letters, numbers, and symbols. For more information, see http://www.microsoft.com/protect/yourself/password/create.mspx.

Alert level: Severe
This entry was first published on: Jul 12, 2010
This entry was updated on: Apr 17, 2011

This threat is also detected as:
  • Win-Trojan/Rootkit.792064 (AhnLab)
  • TR/Rootkit.Gen (Avira)
  • Gen:Rootkit.Nixoa.1 (BitDefender)
  • Win32/ASuspect.HADYW (CA)
  • Trojan.NtRootKit.5980 (Dr.Web)
  • Trojan.WinNT.Bubnix (Ikarus)
  • Rootkit.Win32.Agent.aioy (Kaspersky)
  • Generic Rootkit.ej (McAfee)
  • W32/Rootkit.BNQN (Norman)
  • Rootkit/Bubnix.A (Panda)
  • Mal/SysPk-A (Sophos)
  • Hacktool.Rootkit (Symantec)
  • TROJ_BUBNIX.SMA (Trend Micro)