More Personal Computing revenue decreased $2.7 billion or 6%, mainly due to lower revenue from Devices and Windows, offset in part by higher revenue from search advertising and Gaming. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.
• Devices revenue decreased $3.7 billion or 32%, mainly due to lower revenue from phones, driven by the change in strategy for the phone business, offset in part by higher Microsoft Surface (“Surface”) revenue. Phone revenue decreased $4.2 billion or 56%, as we sold 13.8 million Microsoft Lumia (“Lumia”) phones and 75.5 million other phones in fiscal year 2016, compared with 36.8 million and 126.8 million sold, respectively, in fiscal year 2015. Surface revenue increased $486 million or 13%, primarily driven by the release of Surface Pro 4 and Surface Book in the second quarter of fiscal year 2016, as well as the release of Surface 3 in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015, offset in part by a decline in revenue from Surface Pro 3. Devices revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 3%.
• Windows revenue decreased $871 million or 5%, mainly due to lower revenue from patent licensing, Windows OEM licensing (“Windows OEM”), and Windows Phone licensing. Patent licensing revenue decreased 27%, due to a decline in license revenue per unit and licensed units. Windows OEM revenue decreased 1%. Windows OEM Pro revenue declined 6%, driven by a decline in the business PC market. Windows OEM non-Pro revenue increased 7%, outperforming the consumer PC market, driven by a higher mix of premium licenses sold. Windows Phone licensing revenue decreased 64%, driven by the recognition of deferred revenue in fiscal year 2015 from Windows Phone 8. Windows revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.
• Search advertising revenue increased $1.7 billion or 46%. Search advertising revenue, excluding traffic acquisition costs, increased 17%, primarily driven by growth in Bing, due to higher revenue per search and search volume. Search advertising revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.
• Gaming revenue increased $132 million or 1%, primarily due to higher revenue from Xbox Live and video games, offset in part by lower Xbox hardware revenue. Xbox Live revenue increased 17%, driven by higher revenue per transaction and volume of transactions. Video games revenue grew 34%, driven by the launch of Halo 5 and sales of Minecraft. We acquired Mojang AB (“Mojang”), the Swedish video game developer of the Minecraft gaming franchise, in November 2014. Xbox hardware revenue decreased 16%, mainly due to lower prices of Xbox One consoles sold and a decline in Xbox 360 console volume, offset in part by higher Xbox One console volume. Gaming revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 4%.
More Personal Computing operating income increased $1.5 billion or 32%, primarily due to lower operating expenses, offset in part by lower gross margin. Operating expenses decreased $2.0 billion or 13%, mainly due to lower sales and marketing expenses and research and development expenses. Sales and marketing expenses decreased $1.3 billion or 19% and research and development expenses decreased $676 million or 10%, driven by a reduction in phone expenses. Gross margin decreased $564 million or 3%, reflecting lower revenue, offset in part by a reduction in cost of revenue. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%. Cost of revenue decreased $2.1 billion or 9%, primarily driven by a reduction in phone sales, offset in part by higher search advertising cost of revenue.