Revenue increased $17.2 billion or 14%, driven by growth across each of our segments. Intelligent Cloud revenue increased, driven by server products and cloud services. Productivity and Business Processes revenue increased, driven by Office Commercial and LinkedIn. More Personal Computing revenue increased, driven by Windows and Surface.
Gross margin increased $14.0 billion or 17%, driven by growth across each of our segments. Gross margin percentage increased, driven by sales mix shift to higher margin businesses. Commercial cloud gross margin percentage increased 4 points to 67%, primarily driven by improvement in Azure.
Operating income increased $10.0 billion or 23%, driven by growth across each of our segments.
Key changes in expenses were:
Cost of revenue increased $3.2 billion or 7%, driven by growth in commercial cloud.
Research and development expenses increased $2.4 billion or 14%, driven by investments in cloud engineering, LinkedIn, Devices, and Gaming.
Sales and marketing expenses increased $1.4 billion or 8%, driven by investments in LinkedIn and commercial sales, and an increase in bad debt expense.
General and administrative expenses increased $226 million or 5%, driven by charges associated with the closing of our Microsoft Store physical locations, offset in part by a reduction in business taxes and legal expenses.
Gross margin and operating income included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of 2% and 4%, respectively.
Prior year net income included a $2.6 billion net income tax benefit related to intangible property transfers and a $157 million net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, which together resulted in an increase to net income and diluted EPS of $2.4 billion and $0.31, respectively.