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What is topology?

Topology is a field of mathematics where an object can shift in form, such as being stretched, bent, or folded, yet maintain the same properties. Using topological properties within the qubit provides increased protection against the outside interference that could cause the qubit to collapse.

Creating a topologically protected qubit

Topological protection occurs by splitting an electron, creating the effect of data redundancy. If one part of the electron encounters interference, the other part is unaffected, keeping the qubit alive. Throughout computation, we use ground state degeneracy to store our qubit in a protected subspace of the quantum system.

Turning theory into reality

This split electron is known as electron fractionalization, which is made possible with Majorana fermion quasi-particles. While Majorana fermion quasi-particles were theorized in 1937, the first experimental evidence was found in 2012 at the Microsoft Delft Condensed Matter Physics Lab in the Netherlands. This discovery was a significant advancement for both Microsoft and the scientific community.

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