Abstract

We present an architecture of a recurrent neural network (RNN) with a fully-connected deep neural network (DNN) as its feature extractor. The RNN is equipped with both causal temporal prediction and non-causal look-ahead, via auto-regression (AR) and moving-average (MA), respectively. The focus of this
paper is a primal-dual training method that formulates the learning of the RNN as a formal optimization problem with an inequality constraint that provides a sufficient condition for the stability of the network dynamics. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this new method, which achieves 18.86% phone recognition error on the TIMIT benchmark for the core test set. The result approaches the best result of 17.7%, which was obtained by using RNN with long short-term memory (LSTM). The results also show that the proposed primal-dual training method produces lower recognition errors than the popular RNN methods developed earlier based on the carefully tuned threshold parameter that heuristically prevents the gradient from exploding.
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