Dagstuhl seminar 10381 on robust query processing (held 19.09.10 – 24.09.10) brought together a diverse set of researchers and practitioners with a broad range of expertise for the purpose of fostering discussion and collaboration regarding causes, opportunities, and solutions for achieving robust query processing. The seminar strove to build a unified view across the loosely-coupled system components responsible for the various stages of database query processing. Participants were chosen for their experience with database query processing and, where possible, their prior work in academic research or in product development towards robustness in database query processing. In order to pave the way to motivate, measure, and protect future advances in robust query processing, seminar 10381 focused on developing tests for measuring the robustness of query processing. In these proceedings, we first review the seminar topics, goals, and results, then present abstracts or notes of some of the seminar break-out sessions. We also include, as an appendix, the robust query processing reading list that was collected and distributed to participants before the seminar began, as well as summaries of a few of those papers that were contributed by some participants.