Various modern techniques that form the basis of fundamental technologies underlying today’s automatic speech recognition (ASR) research and applications have recently attracted new attention. These techniques have significantly contributed to the progress in ASR as a field of research. This special issue of IEEE Signal Processing Magazine (SPM) intends to bring together leading experts from various disciplines to explore the impact of new approaches to ASR—fortunately, we have been very successful in this regard. This issue of the magazine provides a comprehensive overview of not only recent developments but also open problems.