This paper describes a new framework for processing images by example, called “image analogies.” The framework involves two stages: a design phase, in which a pair of images, with one image purported to be a “filtered” version of the other, is presented as “training data”; and an application phase, in which the learned filter is applied to some new target image in order to create an “analogous” filtered result. Image analogies are based on a simple multiscale autoregression, inspired primarily by recent results in texture synthesis. By choosing different types of source image pairs as input, the framework supports a wide variety of “image filter” effects, including traditional image filters, such as blurring or embossing; super-resolution, in which a higher-resolution image is inferred from a low-resolution source; improved texture synthesis, in which some textures are synthesized with better coherence than previous approaches; texture transfer, in which images are “texturized” with some arbitrary source texture; artistic filters, in which various drawing and painting styles are synthesized based on scanned real-world examples; and texture-by-numbers, in which realistic scenes, composed of a variety of textures, are created using a simple painting interface.
Copyright © 2001 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or firstname.lastname@example.org. The definitive version of this paper can be found at ACM's Digital Library -http://www.acm.org/dl/.