Relaxing from Vocabulary: Robust Weakly-Supervised Deep Learning for Vocabulary-Free Image Tagging

  • Yue Wu
  • Tao Mei
  • Jinqiao Wang
  • Hanqing Lu
  • Yong Rui

Published by IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision

The development of deep learning has empowered machines with comparable capability of recognizing limited image categories to human beings. However, most existing approaches heavily rely on human-curated training data, which hinders the scalability to large and unlabeled vocabularies in image tagging. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised deep learning model which can be trained from the readily available Web images to relax the dependence on human labors and scale up to arbitrary tags (categories). Specifically, based on the assumption that features of true samples in a category tend to be similar and noises tend to be variant, we embed the feature map of the last deep layer into a new affinity representation, and further minimize the discrepancy between the affinity representation and its low-rank approximation. The discrepancy is finally transformed into the objective function to give relevance feedback to back propagation. Experiments show that we can achieve a performance gain of 14:0% in terms of a semantic-based relevance metric in image tagging with 63,043 tags from the WordNet, against the typical deep model trained on the ImageNet 1,000 vocabulary set.