Power and energy constraints are now the driving force in devices from smartphones to servers. Quantitative power, performance, and energy measurements suggest that hardware heterogeneity to match software diversity has the potential to deliver energy efﬁciency. However, programming heterogeneous hardware directly is a nightmare. We discuss some approaches and results that abstract, choose, and exploit hardware heterogeneity. New programming and system abstractions are essential for establishing a parallel heterogeneous ecosystem in the post-Dennard era.