Microsoft deeply believes that investment in research and education lay the groundwork for advances that benefit society and enhance the competitiveness of U.S. companies, U.S. security, and the lives of individuals. In my testimony, I will describe Key elements of the information technology research and development (R&D) ecosystem.  Microsoft Research and an illustration of how innovative new products build on a wide range of research activities.  The two core pillars of NITRD – investment in discovery and investment in people – and examples of important research areas for NITRD going forward.