Win32/Bredolab is a downloader which is able to download and execute arbitrary files from a remote host.
Win32/Bredolab has changed its method of installation over time. When older variants of Win32/Bredolab are executed, they copy themselves to one of the following locations, converting their EXE to a DLL:
The registry is then modified to ensure that the DLL is loaded. For example: To subkey: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders Sets value: "SecurityProviders" With data: "msapsspc.dll, schannel.dll, digest.dll, msnsspc.dll, digeste.dll"
More recent variants of Win32/Bredolab copy themselves to the %startup% folder using one of the following variable filenames:
Win32/Bredolab contacts a remote host, and receives a response from the master server that contains at least one encrypted binary. Downloaded binaries are decrypted and executed.
Win32/Bredolab may use a randomly named file name for downloaded binaries on the local machine. Binaries may be saved to the following location:
In the wild, Win32/Bredolab has been observed to contact the following control servers: 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 dollarpoint.ru imoviemax.ru mudstrang.ru vanni-van.cn gssmedia.cn www.qoeirq.com
The following list details just a small selection of the malware known to be downloaded by variants of Win32/Bredolab:
Some variants of Win32/Bredolab may create the following file during execution:
Several variants of Win32/Bredolab have been the focus of various spam mass-mailings. Here is a selection of an e-mail, used in the wild, to distribute Bredolab onto user's computers:
Example email #1
Subject: Postal Tracking #IARN863188FLP4G
We were not able to deliver postal package you sent on the 14th of March in time because the recipient's address is not correct. Please print out the invoice copy attached and collect the package at our office.
Your United Parcel Service of America
Example email #2
Subject: Shipping confirmation for order -08244007
Thank you for shopping at our internet shop! We have successfully received your payment. Your order has been shipped to your billing address. You have ordered Samsung GO N310-13G. You can find your tracking number in attached to the e-mail document. Please print the label to get your package. We hope you enjoy your order!
Analysis by Scott Molenkamp
Take the following steps to help prevent infection on your computer:
Enable a firewall on your computer.
Get the latest computer updates for all your installed software.
Use up-to-date antivirus software.
Limit user privileges on the computer.
Use caution when opening attachments and accepting file transfers.
Use caution when clicking on links to Web pages.
Avoid downloading pirated software.
Protect yourself against social engineering attacks.
Use strong passwords.
Enable a firewall on your computer
Use a third-party firewall product or turn on the Microsoft Windows Internet Connection Firewall.
Updates help protect your computer from viruses, worms, and other threats as they are discovered. It is important to install updates for all the software that is installed in your computer. These are usually available from vendor Web sites.
You can use the Automatic Updates feature in Windows to automatically download future Microsoft security updates while your computer is on and connected to the Internet.
Starting with Windows Vista and Windows 7, Microsoft introduced User Account Control (UAC), which, when enabled, allowed users to run with least user privileges. This scenario limits the possibility of attacks by malware and other threats that require administrative privileges to run.
You can configure UAC in your computer to meet your preferences:
Use caution when opening attachments and accepting file transfers
Exercise caution with e-mail and attachments received from unknown sources, or received unexpectedly from known sources. Use extreme caution when accepting file transfers from known or unknown sources.
Use caution when clicking on links to Web pages
Exercise caution with links to Web pages that you receive from unknown sources, especially if the links are to a Web page that you are not familiar with, unsure of the destination of, or suspicious of. Malicious software may be installed in your computer simply by visiting a Web page with harmful content.
Avoid downloading pirated software
Threats may also be bundled with software and files that are available for download on various torrent sites. Downloading "cracked" or "pirated" software from these sites carries not only the risk of being infected with malware, but is also illegal. For more information, see 'The risks of obtaining and using pirated software'.
Protect yourself from social engineering attacks
While attackers may attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in hardware or software to compromise a computer, they also attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in human behavior to do the same. When an attacker attempts to take advantage of human behavior to persuade the affected user to perform an action of the attacker's choice, it is known as 'social engineering'. Essentially, social engineering is an attack against the human interface of the targeted computer. For more information, see 'What is social engineering?'.
Use strong passwords
Attackers may try to gain access to your Windows account by guessing your password. It is therefore important that you use a strong password – one that cannot be easily guessed by an attacker. A strong password is one that has at least 8 characters, and combines letters, numbers, and symbols. For more information, see http://www.microsoft.com/protect/yourself/password/create.mspx.
The following system changes may indicate the presence of this malware:
The presence of the following files: <system folder>\digeste.dll <system folder>\digiwet.dll <system folder>\mcenspc.dll <system folder>\msansspc.dll %startup%\asgupd32.exe %startup%\dfqupd32.exe %startup%\dmaupd32.exe %startup%\fmnupd32.exe %startup%\ihaupd32.exe %startup%\imiupd32.exe %startup%\legupd32.exe %startup%\ppqupd32.exe %startup%\rqjupd32.exe %startup%\ikowin32.exe %startup%\wbhwin32.exe %startup%\hcgwin32.exe %startup%\fqosys32.exe %startup%\lecsys32.exe %startup%\necsys32.exe %startup%\rncsys32.exe %startup%\ysfsys32.exe %startup%\zqosys32.exe
The presence of the following registry modifications: To subkey: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders Sets value: "SecurityProviders" With data: "msapsspc.dll, schannel.dll, digest.dll, msnsspc.dll, digeste.dll"