Abstract

Compared to SAT, there is no simple concept of what a solution to a QBF problem is. Furthermore, as the series of QBF evaluations shows, the QBF solvers that are available often disagree. Thus, proof generation for QBF seems to be even more important than for SAT. In this paper we propose a new uniform proof format, which captures refutations and witnesses for a variety of QBF solvers, and is based on a novel extended resolution rule for QBF. Our experiments show the flexibility of this new format. We also identify shortcomings of our format and conjecture that a purely resolution based proof calculus is not powerful enough to trace the most efficient solvers.

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