Chameleon: Scalable Adaptation of Video Analytics

ACM SIGCOMM |

Applying deep convolutional neural networks (NN) to video data at scale poses a substantial systems challenge, as improving inference accuracy often requires a prohibitive cost in computational resources. While it is promising to balance resource and accuracy by selecting a suitable NN configuration (e.g., the resolution and frame rate of the input video), one must also address the significant dynamics of the NN configuration’s impact on video analytics accuracy. We present Chameleon, a controller that dynamically picks the best configurations for existing NN-based video analytics pipelines. The key challenge in Chameleon is that in theory, adapting configurations frequently can reduce resource consumption with little degradation in accuracy, but searching a large
space of configurations periodically incurs an overwhelming resource overhead that negates the gains of adaptation. The insight behind Chameleon is that the underlying characteristics (e.g., the velocity and sizes of objects) that affect the best configuration have enough temporal and spatial correlation to allow the search cost to be amortized over time and across multiple video feeds. For example, using the video feeds of five traffic cameras, we demonstrate that compared to a baseline that picks a single optimal configuration offline, Chameleon can achieve 20-50% higher accuracy with the same amount of resources, or achieve the same accuracy with only 30-50% of the resources (a 2-3× speedup).