Abstract

We present a series of CPS-based intermediate languages suitable for functional language compilation, arguing that they have practical benefits over direct-style languages based on A-normal form (ANF) or monads. Inlining of functions demonstrates the benefits most clearly: in ANF-based languages, inlining involves a re-normalization step that rearranges let expressions and possibly introduces a new `join point’ function, and in monadic languages, commuting conversions must be applied; in contrast, inlining in our CPS language is a simple substitution of variables for variables. We present a contification transformation implemented by simple rewrites on the intermediate language. Exceptions are modelled using so-called `double-barrelled’ CPS. Subtyping on exception constructors then gives a very straightforward effect analysis for exceptions. We also show how a graph-based representation of CPS terms can be implemented extremely efficiently, with linear-time term simplification.

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