Abstract

With advances in pen-based computing devices, handwriting has become an increasingly popular input modality. Researchers have put considerable effort into building intelligent recognition systems that can translate handwriting to text with increasing accuracy. However, handwritten input is inherently ambiguous, and these systems will always make errors. Unfortunately, work on error recovery mechanisms has mainly focused on interface innovations that allow users to manually transform the erroneous recognition result into the intended one. In our work, we propose a mixed-initiative approach to error correction. We describe CueTIP, a novel correction interface that takes advantage of the recognizer to continually evolve its results using the additional information from user corrections. This significantly reduces the number of actions required to reach the intended result. We present a user study showing that CueTIP is more efficient and better preferred for correcting handwriting recognition errors. Grounded in the discussion of CueTIP, we also present design principles that may be applied to mixed-initiative correction interfaces in other domains.

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