Abstract

We describe an interactive, computer-assisted framework for combining parts of a set of photographs into a single composite picture, a process we call “digital photomontage.” Our framework makes use of two techniques primarily: graph-cut optimization, to choose good seams within the constituent images so that they can be combined as seamlessly as possible; and gradient-domain fusion, a process based on Poisson equations, to further reduce any remaining visible artifacts in the composite. Also central to the framework is a suite of interactive tools that allow the user to specify a variety of high-level image objectives, either globally across the image, or locally through a painting-style interface. Image objectives are applied independently at each pixel location and generally involve a function of the pixel values (such as “maximum contrast”) drawn from that same location in the set of source images. Typically, a user applies a series of image objectives iteratively in order to create a finished composite. The power of this framework lies in its generality; we show how it can be used for a wide variety of applications, including “selective composites” (for instance, group photos in which everyone looks their best), relighting, extended depth of field, panoramic stitching, clean-plate production, stroboscopic visualization of movement, and time-lapse mosaics.