Abstract

Programming-by-example technologies let end users construct and run new programs by providing examples of the intended program behavior. But, the few provided examples seldom uniquely determine the intended program. Previous approaches to picking a program used a bias toward shorter or more naturally structured programs. Our work here gives a machine learning approach for learning to learn programs that departs from previous work by relying upon features that are independent of the program structure, instead relying upon a learned bias over program behaviors, and more generally over program execution traces. Our approach leverages abundant unlabeled data for semi-supervised learning, and incorporates simple kinds of world knowledge for common-sense reasoning during program induction. These techniques are evaluated in two programming-by-example domains, improving the accuracy of program learners.