Portrait of Mary L. Gray

Mary L. Gray

Senior Researcher


I’m a Senior Researcher at MSR and a Fellow at Harvard University’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society. I maintain an appointment as Associate Professor of the Media School, with affiliations in American Studies, Anthropology, and Gender Studies at Indiana University.

My research in a nutshell?

I study people’s everyday uses of technologies, particularly among people with limited or marginalized access to digital media and the internet.

I’ve collaborated on research projects that range from looking at the practices of “jumping”—illegitimate check-ins at places a player could not physically be—among locative media Foursquare fans; how college students use the television program “Glee” as a transmedia object in their everyday life; and analyzing online lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) online advocacy campaigns, like the “It Gets Better” anti-bullying campaign launched on YouTube in 2010, as forms of “queer infrastructure” that extend—but also confound—brick and mortar non-profit advocacy groups less equipped to use the viral capacity of the Internet.

My single-authored work takes up interests in how we do ethnographically-informed media research and the implications of media in the lives of those who have limited access to it or contribute to information and data economies in ways that often go unnoticed.

My first book, In Your Face: Stories From the Lives of Queer Youth (Routledge Press), concentrated on contemporary gay, lesbian, bisexual, and trans-identifying (LGBT) youth experiences in the United States. That led me to wonder: what’s life like for youth who don’t have easy access to queer communities and resources typically associated with cities through out the United States? Where, when, and how do youth in the rural United States acquire the language for their queer senses of self? And with the rapid but unequal incorporation of digital media into the lives of youth and their support agencies, what difference does the Internet’s increasing presence—and presumed ubiquity—make to these youth negotiating their sense of sexuality and gender ?

I spent 2001-2007 looking at how young people, living along Kentucky’s Appalachian borders, use media to negotiate identity and visibility in this rural region of United States. Specifically, I studied how rural LGBT youth and their advocates use local support agencies, peer networks, and the internet as sites and technologies of sexual and gender representation–what I refer to as queer identity work. My book, Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America (New York University Press, 2009) shares what I learned from rural queer youth and their adult allies and offers their lessons for political organizers and media activists everywhere. And the volume, Queering the Countryside: New Frontiers in Rural Queer Studies (New York University Press, 2016), co-edited with Colin R. Johnson and Brian Gilley, assembles a stellar group of emerging and established scholars to expand on the value of looking at rurality as both a framework and political touchstone for queer theory and praxis.

Right now, I’m working with computer scientist Siddharth Suri to study the social impact of digital labor through the case of on-demand labor—small tasks sourced, scheduled, distributed and completed online, done in minutes for pennies a pop. Who are the people who make this work possible? What does labor mean when it is “taskified” and humans are embedded in a system of code and computation that asks them to remain invisible as part of the service they provide? Over the course of two years, our research team combined ethnography and computer science, to amass the largest data set about on-demand work ever collected. We conducted hundreds of in-person interviews and more than 10,000 surveys of workers in the US and India. We also measured the workflow data of 4 different on-demand platform businesses, studied their policy landscape, and performed dozens of experiments to understand API-driven office work and how it shapes the lives and productivity of on-demand workers. You can find our public papers and talks at: www.inthecrowd.org

I have one other passion/obsession: studying how ethics, compliance routines and computer science research produce norms of vulnerability and risk in research involving human subjects. Drawing on my past and current research, I’m looking at the role of “big data” in human communication research and technology studies and the value of anthropology, as a particular kind of “big data,” that warrants more attention. I argue that we need different kinds of data, from the statistically to the ethnographically significant, more collaborative approaches to how we arrive at what we know, and critical analysis of the cultural assumptions embedded in the data we collect. I hope to persuade researchers who aspire to build technologies for human communication that we must imagine “big data” as an on-going process of modeling, triangulation, and critique rather than a static data set we can output to a flat file. I serve on the Executive Board of Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and am a past board member of the American Anthropological Association.

Overall, my research illustrates the productive frictions, ebbs, and flows that bind social life and technological innovation, whether we have direct access to these innovations or not.


Social Media Collective

Established: July 6, 2010

Over the last decade, social media has become a central part of people's engagement with technology. From email to Twitter, mobile phones to Facebook, people are using a vast array of social technologies as a part of their daily lives.…





I studied anthropology before receiving my Ph.D. in Communication from the University of California at San Diego in 2004. I draw on this interdisciplinary background to study how people use digital and social media in everyday ways to shape their social identities and create spaces for themselves. My most recent book, Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America (NYU Press), which won awards from scholarly societies in Anthropology, Media Studies, and Sociology, examined how lesbian, gay, bi, and transgender young people negotiate and express their identities in rural parts of the United States and the role that digital media play in their lives and political work. I served on the Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association from 2008 until 2010 and, now, hold a seat on that Association’s Committee on Public Policy. I maintain an appointment as an Associate Professor of Communication and Culture at Indiana University, with adjunct appointments in American Studies, Anthropology, and Gender Studies.

My research project, “Vulnerable Subjects,” analyzes how university-based research has come to depend on compliance cyberinfrastructures—the distributed and networked hardware, software, and human resources that organize interactions among Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), researchers, and research participants. Specifically, I’m examining how these cyberinfrastructures shape definitions of “human subjects” and “vulnerable populations.” These definitions, fundamental to the management of all social research since the introduction of federal guidelines regulating research ethics, are far from self-evident or static. Seemingly banal cyberinfrastructures literally define the ideal human subject through designation of what is ethically untenable research. I focus on the implications of these practices and their impact on emerging media research in university settings, particularly the directions of ethnographically informed scholarship.

My next book project (tentatively titled Stuck? Theorizing Mobility in a Networked Age) looks at how people use emerging media on-the-go to connect to each other and place themselves in their social environments, particularly in technologically impoverished areas. I am particularly interested in how notions of social and economic mobility, woven into mobile media design and access policies, collide with technological, economic, and spatial barriers to shape people’s experiences of mobility and public presence. At its heart, Stuck is a story about the persistent importance of location and place in a time when the designs of mobile media suggest it should matter less. It asks us to consider what people do at these crossroads of expectations around mobility.