SenseCam is a wearable camera that takes photos automatically. Originally conceived as a personal ‘Black Box’ accident recorder, it soon became evident that looking through images previously recorded tends to elicit quite vivid remembering of the original event. This exciting effect has formed the basis of a great deal of research around the world using SenseCam and the device is now available to buy as the Vicon Revue.
There is lots of information about SenseCam on this website, but highlights include:
SenseCam is a wearable digital camera that is designed to take photographs passively, without user intervention, while it is being worn. Unlike a regular digital camera or a cameraphone, SenseCam does not have a viewfinder or a display that can be used to frame photos. Instead, it is fitted with a wide-angle (fish-eye) lens that maximizes its field-of-view. This ensures that nearly everything in the wearer’s view is captured by the camera, which is important because a regular wearable camera would likely produce many uninteresting images.
SenseCam also contains a number of different electronic sensors. These include light-intensity and light-color sensors, a passive infrared (body heat) detector, a temperature sensor, and a multiple-axis accelerometer. These sensors are monitored by the camera’s microprocessor, and certain changes in sensor readings can be used to automatically trigger a photograph to be taken.
For example, a significant change in light level, or the detection of body heat in front of the camera can cause the camera to take a picture. Alternatively, the user may elect to set SenseCam to operate on a timer, for example taking a picture every 30 seconds. We have also experimented with the incorporation of audio level detection, audio recording and GPS location sensing into SenseCam although these do not feature in the current hardware.
In our current design (v2.3), users typically wear the camera on a cord around their neck, although it would also be possible to clip it to pockets or belts, or to attach it directly to clothing. There are several advantages of using a neck-cord to wear the camera. First, it is reasonably stable when being worn, as it tends not to move around from left-to-right when the wearer is walking or sitting. Second, it is relatively comfortable to wear and easy to put on and take off. Third, when worn around the neck, SenseCam is reasonably close to the wearer’s eyeline and generates images taken from the wearer’s point of view – i.e., they get a ‘first person’ view. Informal observations suggest that this results in images that are more compelling when subsequently replayed.
SenseCam takes pictures at VGA resolution (640×480 pixels) and stores them as compressed .jpg files on internal flash memory. We currently fit 1Gb of flash memory, which can typically store over 30,000 images. Most users seem happy with the relatively low-resolution images, suggesting that the time-lapse, first-person-viewpoint sequences represent a useful media type that exists somewhere between still images and video. It also points to the fact that these are used as memory supports rather than rich media. Along with the images, SenseCam also stores a log file, which records other sensor data along with their timestamps. Additional user data, such as time-stamped GPS traces, may be used in conjunction with the SenseCam data via time-correlation.
The data recorded by the SenseCam can be downloaded onto a desktop or laptop computer, typically at the end of a day or week. Microsoft Research developed a simple viewer application that can be used to transfer the images in this way and then display them. The basis of the viewer, which is designed to be very straightforward to use, is a window in which images are displayed and a simple VCR-type control which allows an image sequence to be played slowly (around 2 images/second), quickly (around 10 images/second), re-wound and paused.
The fast-play option creates a kind of ‘flip-book’ movie effect – the entire event represented by the images is replayed as a time-compressed movie. Such rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) techniques are well-studied in psychological literature1 and are particularly suited to SenseCam images. It is possible to delete individual images from the sequence if they are badly framed or of poor quality. An additional option is provided to correct for the ‘fish-eye’ lens effect using an algorithm, which applies an inverse model of the distortion.
It is also possible to import SenseCam image sequences into a more sophisticated application. MyLifeBits will allow the large number of images generated daily to be easily searched and accessed. Dublin City University have developed a sophisticated SenseCam image browser which assists in splitting sequences of images into different events by automatically analysing the images and sensor data generated by SenseCam. The Vicon Revue comes with a cross-platform image browser.See for example: Spence, R., “Rapid, serial and visual: a presentation technique with potential,” Information Visualization, 2005, Vol: 1, Pages: 13 – 19, ISSN: 1473-8716.
Early on in the development of SenseCam, we became aware of the work of the Memory Clinic and Memory Aids Clinic at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK. This is a centre of excellence in the UK for diagnosing various conditions that affect memory, and for working with patients to try and mitigate their symptoms. While there are established techniques to help people remember to do things (i.e. supplement their prospective memory), there are very few aids that complement autobiographical memory, i.e. support the remembrance of things done or experienced. The Memory Clinic was excited by the potential of SenseCam to help in this regard.
In around 2005 we started a trial with a 63-year-old patient from the clinic with amnesia resulting from a brain infection. The patient, Mrs. B, was given a SenseCam and asked to wear it whenever she anticipated a ‘significant event’ – the sort of event that she would like to remember (i.e. not just something routine or mundane).
After wearing SenseCam for the duration of such an event, Mrs. B would spend around one hour reviewing the images every two days, for a two-week period.
Without any aids to recall, Mrs. B typically completely forgets everything about an event after five days or less. However, during the course of this period of assisted recall using SenseCam, Mrs. B’s memory for the event steadily increased, and after two weeks she could recall around 80 percent of the event in question. What is perhaps more remarkable is that following the two-week period of aided recall, Mrs. B appears to have a lasting ability to recall the event even without reviewing the images.
The results of that initial trial with SenseCam are shown here:
Following the success of the first trial and the excitement it generated in both the research and clinical rehabilitation communities, Microsoft Research made SenseCam devices available to a large number of researchers and also initiated additional trials related to SenseCam’s use as a memory aid. Using SenseCam seems to be a very positive experience for most of the patients involved. Many have reported enjoying using it and reviewing images of their experiences, explaining that it makes them feel much more confident and relaxed. This is in stark contrast to the use of a written diary, which patients typically report has the opposite effect. Carers have also reported that they find SenseCam very beneficial. Here are some of the things that patients and their carers have said about SenseCam:
- “I am less anxious, because it helps to settle, or verify, what actually happened…”
- “It has enormous potential as a memory aid and has been a great success for us personally”
- “Looking at the images is definitely helpful… they cue memories of things I would normally just forget”
- “SenseCam is a Godsend… everyone should have one!”
- I am “more relaxed socially and less anxious”
- “Sharing experiences again is a sheer pleasure”
Microsoft has provided over $0.5M funding including SenseCam devices, software and support to facilitate collaborative research projects with academic and clinical memory experts around the world. Some of these projects, which broadly aim to address specific research questions and further our understanding of how SenseCam appears to give such dramatic results in improving memory recall, are listed below:
- SenseCam in the study and support of memory in Transient Epileptic Amnesia Professor Adam Zeman, University of Exeter, UK
- SenseCam-facilitated recollection in patients with dementia Professor Phil Barnard, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, UK, & Dr Linda Clare, University of Bangor, Wales, UK
- Why and how are SenseCam movies such a powerful aid to memory? Locating the brain basis of memory improvement Professor Roberto Cabeza, Duke University, US, and Professor Martin Conway, University of Leeds, UK
- Enhancing quality of life in Alzheimer’s Disease with automatic SenseCam records of days in one’s life Professor Ron Baecker, University of Toronto and Professor Yaakov Stern, Columbia Medical School, US
- Evaluation of SenseCam as a tool for aiding executive self-monitoring and control of emotion and behaviour after brain injury Fergus Gracey, The Oliver Zangwill Centre for Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, Ely, UK
- Evaluation of SenseCam as a retrospective memory compensation aid following acquired brain injury David Winkelaar, Psychologist, The Halvar Jonson Centre for Brain InjuryPonoka, Alberta, Canada
- SenseCam as a Tool to Study Memory Processes in Autobiographical MemoryProfessor William F. Brewer, Professor Aaron S. Benjamin, and Jason R. Finley, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, US
In addition to the use of SenseCam as an aid for people with memory loss, the device has a number of other potential applications. In 2005, Microsoft provided some of the first SenseCams to a number of academic collaborators interested in the general area of ‘digital memories’, i.e. life-recording or life-logging. These projects applied SenseCam in a variety of ways. For example CLARITY, the Centre for Sensor Web Technologies at Dublin City University, Ireland, is working on systems that will automatically generate ‘landmark images’ through analysis of the large number of images and other logged data recorded by SenseCam. In this way a personalized memory experience of a visit to a museum, national monument, etc. can be automatically generated, based on data collected by SenseCams worn during the visit. The CLARITY Centre has also done a huge range of additional research related to SenseCam.
We are also working with Dr Charlie Foster and his colleagues from the Health Promotion Research Group at Oxford University, UK. This work, funded in part by the British Heart Foundation, looks at the relationship between the environment and physical activity – for example how effective the provision of cycle lanes is in encouraging people to leave their cars at home. SenseCam can be useful as a means to measure various aspects of the of the environment and the amount of exercise people take. The group is also using SenseCam as a tool to record food choices and eating habits.
We worked with the Universities of Nottingham and Bath, the BBC, BT and two small companies, Blast Theory and ScienceScope as part of a project called Participate. The purpose of Participate is to design, develop and test the utility of novel, pervasive, lightweight and wearable technologies that support mass participation in science, education, art and community life. SenseCam has been used by a number of school children as part of this project. In a separate piece of work, SenseCam has been used in the classroom to enable teachers to create a log of their day, supporting various aspects of reflective practice and thereby enabling users of the device to analyse their day afterwards. SenseCam has also been used in an office environment to support studies of how office workers spend their day, and in particular how they manage to work simultaneously on different tasks.
Collaborations with a number of other researchers around the world to further explore yet more potential usages for SenseCam include:
- As a tool to assess accessibility issues encountered by wheelchair users.
- To coordinate disaster response by recording visual information encountered by those responding to disasters, people preoccupied with providing hands-on help.
- As an automatic diary that doesn’t require expensive, intrusive recording equipment or restrict a user’s activities.
- A non-intrusive market research tool.
- To monitor physiological data to help patients understand the sequence of events that precedes a period of intense anxiety or anger.
- To monitor lighting conditions in schools and to learn how they affect students.
- Capturing personal experiences for sharing with others.”
There is an active SenseCam research community, which meet annually at the SenseCam Symposium. For more information please visit the SenseCam wiki. There is also a Wikipedia page on SenseCam. SenseCam is on display at the London Science Museum in their ‘Who am I?’ gallery. Videos which describe SenseCam are available here.
The SenseCam is available to buy as the Vicon Revue. In addition to the software for viewing images that Vicon supply, the original Microsoft Research Image Viewer is available, as is a more advanced viewer from Dublin City University.
Images of the SenseCam device and sample images taken with a SenseCam are available to download here. We also have a selection of quotes from some of our collaborators here.
For more information about SenseCam research please contact us at email@example.com
- Life with a wearable camera BBC News, 29 July 2013.
- Wearable cameras – the future of fitness monitoring? Gizmag, 5 February 2013.
- Interview with Tim Regan, Steve Hodges and Gordon Bell. BBC World Service Click Radio, 6 January 2013.
- Autographer wearable camera will save your life… or track your staff. ZDNet, 25 September 2012.
- SenseCam helps brain tumour boy’s memory. The Sun, 27 June 2012.
- The Digital Human. BBC Radio 4, 20 April 2012.
- Total recall: Diary of a lifelogger. New Scientist, 1 March 2012.
- All-seeing time-lapse reveals altered memories. New Scientist, 23 February 2012.
- How I remember: the lifelogger. The Guardian, 14 January 2012.
- Photographic Memory: Wearable Cam Could Help Patients Stave Off Effects of Impaired Recall. Scientific American, October 31 2011.
- What gives scientists – and writers – credibility. New Scientist, 28 October 2011.
- Liz Hayes: Wiped Clean. 60 Minutes Australia, 11 March 2011.
- Claire’s life, 9:53-10:42. John Sutton, The Psychologist, 1 February 2011
- Microsoft SenseCam concept now available as Vicon Revue. Gizmag, 17 December 2010.
- Amnesia and Camera: Photos as Memories. TIME Magazine Video, October 2010.
- Your Life, Uploaded: The Digital Way to Better Memory, Health, and Productivity. Gordon Bell and Jim Gemmell.
- Remains of the Day by Eben Harrell. TIME Magazine, October 2010.
- Gordon Bell discusses e-memory and SenseCam. BBC Digital Planet, 10 August 2010
- A Neck-Worn Camera to Aid Memory. GeekBeat.TV, 20 July 2010.
- Woman with 10-minute recall hopes camera will jog memory by snapping every 15 secs. Daily Mail Online, 11 June 2010.
- Eyewitness Documentary. BBC 2, 2 May 2010.
- Microsoft Sensecam Review: What it’s like to record your whole life. Gizmodo, 20 March 2010.
- SenseCam. Sky News, 19 March 2010.
- A Little Black Box to Jog Failing Memory. New York Times, 8 March 2010.
- Save your life… digitise. Times Online, 4 February 2010.
- Prosthetic Memory: A Camera That Gives Back Lost Moments. Inkling Magazine, 28 December 2009.
- Camera catches all life’s details. CNN, 9 November 2009.
- Life-logging camera brings new hope for memory-loss patients. CNN International, 5 November 2009.
- Do digital diaries mess up your brain? CNN, 3 November 2009.
- Privacy is dead, and social media hold smoking gun. CNN, 28 October 2009.
- The Edge. BBC Radio 4, 25 October 2009.
- New camera will reveal your entire life. The Daily Telegraph, 19 October 2009.
- Week In tech Reviewed. npr, 19 October 2009.
- Your life in pictures by ten days slices. Gizmodo, 19 October 2009.
- Vicon Revue camera launched. Pocket-Lint, 19 October 2009.
- SenseCam lifelogging camera hitting. Slash Gear, 19 October 2009.
- ViconRevenue plans to make lifelogging for all of us. Stuff TV, 19 October 2009.
- Microsoft’s life-blogging SenseCam becomes the ViconRevue, coming to a lanyard near you in 2010.Engadget, 19 October 2009.
- New Camera Promises to Capture Your Whole Life. ABC News, 18 October2009.
- Camera Records Your Life, 10 Days at a Time. Gizmodo, 16 October 2009.
- Sharewatch OMG. Financial Times, 16 October 2009.
- New camera promises to capture your whole life. New Scientist, 16 October 2009.
- OMG launching new camera for Alzheimer’s patients. Times, 15 October 2009.
- Sainsbury jumps 10% on bid talk, but fails to lift FTSE. The Guardian, 15 October 2009.
- OMG launching new camera for Alzheimer’s patients. Times Online, 15 October 2009.
- Microsoft camera deal powers OMG share jump. Reuters, 15 October 2009.
- Show time for wearable camera. Business Weekly, 15 October 2009.
- SenseCam. The One Show, 21 April 2009.
- Camera ‘boosts memory’ to help dementia patients. Daily Telegraph, 24 March 2009.
- New camera designed to help dementia sufferers. Daily Telegraph Online, 23 March 2009.
- The portable camera that combats memory loss bringing hope to dementia sufferers. Daily Mail Online, 23 March 2009.
- SenseCam. BBC Look East, 16 March 2009.
- NEUROSCIENCE: A Memorable Device. Science, 13 March 2009.
- Advances for Alzheimer’s, Outside the Lab. Time Magazine Online, 23 February 2009.
- Man Machine – SenseCam. Open2.net, 5 October 2008.
- Remember, Remember. BBC Radio 3, 21 September 2008.
- Mind your own memory. BBC Radio Times, 20 September 2008.
- Visual Recall. Readers Digest, September 2008.
- Alzheimer’s camera aid ‘helps to restore memory’, Daily Mail, 12 December 2007.
- Camera ‘aids memory loss fight’, BBC News, 11 December 2007.
- A Camera to Help Dementia Patients, Technology Review, 10 December 2007.
- SenseCam Aids Patients with Memory Problems, Slashdot, 10 December 2007.
- Alzheimer’s camera helps restore memory, The Telegraph, 29 November 2007.
- Wear your memory round your neck, Daily Mail, 24 March 2007.
- Human black box ‘triggers memories’, Telegraph, 24 March 2007.
- Black Boxes of our Lives, The Times, 1 August 2006.
- ‘Black box’ cam for total recall, BBC News, 15 June 2004.
What do SenseCam images look like?
An example ‘flip-book’ movie made from a sequence of SenseCam images is here.
How many images does the SenseCam take?
SenseCam typically takes a picture every 30 seconds, although this is user-configurable. The maximum rate of capture is one image every 5 seconds. With a 1Gb storage card fitted inside the device, it is capable of storing over 30,000 images which in practical terms is a week or two’s worth of pictures. When the internal storage is full, the images must be downloaded to a PC.
How long does the battery last?
The rechargeable battery in the SenseCam will run continuously for around 24 hours when it’s capturing an image every 30 seconds or so. It takes around 3 hours to recharge using a USB connection to a PC or a mains adapter.
How do you use the sensor data?
Data is from the various sensors in the SenseCam is collected continuously and recorded on the internal storage card. SenseCam also uses information from the sensors to trigger additional image capture, beyond the ‘image every 30 seconds’ which is captured in any case. For example, if the SenseCam has been stationary for some time as a result of being put down somewhere for example, the PIR sensor will be used to detect people coming into view and this will trigger additional photos to be taken. In some applications, for example our work with patients who have memory loss conditions, simple timed-triggering may well be sufficient.
The Sensor data may also be used after the event to facilitate various types of automatic analysis of a sequence of images. A good example of this is automatic landmark generation research.
Who invented SenseCam? Who worked on the project?
Whilst working at Microsoft Research, Lyndsay Williams initiated the first prototype of SenseCam in 2003, motivated by the idea of a ‘black box’ accident recorder for people. Since then a large number of people at Microsoft Research have evolved the project very significantly. Steve Hodges designed the SenseCam device which has been used around the world for research into a number of different aspects of memory, activity and nutrition monitoring, market research, and other topics. This device has also been commercialised by Vicon as the Revue. Others involved in various aspects of hardware and software development, evaluation and experimentation include: Emma Berry, Georgina Browne, Alex Butler, Rowanne Fleck, Andrew Fogg, Richard Harper, Steve Hodges, Shahram Izadi, Matt Lee, Mike Massimi, Narinder Kapur, Dave Randall, Alban Rrustemi, James Scott, Abigail Sellen, Gavin Smyth, James Srinivasan, Trevor Taylor and Ken Wood. SenseCam and all associated intellectual property is owned by Microsoft Research.