Abstract

Recognizing actions in videos is a challenging task as video is an information-intensive media with complex variations. Most existing methods have treated video as a flat data sequence while ignoring the intrinsic hierarchical structure of the video content. In particular, an action may span different granularities in this hierarchy including, from small to large, a single \emph{frame}, consecutive frames (\emph{motion}), a short \emph{clip}, and the entire \emph{video}. In this paper, we present a novel framework to boost action recognition by learning a deep spatio-temporal video representation at hierarchical multi-granularity. Specifically, we model each granularity as a single stream by 2D (for \emph{frame} and \emph{motion} streams) or 3D (for \emph{clip} and \emph{video} streams) convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The framework therefore consists of multi-stream 2D or 3D CNNs to learn both the spatial and temporal representations. Furthermore, we employ the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks on the \emph{frame}, \emph{motion}, and \emph{clip} streams to exploit long-term temporal dynamics. With a \emph{softmax} layer on the top of each stream, the classification scores can be predicted from all the streams, followed by a novel fusion scheme based on the multi-granular score distribution. Our networks are learned in an end-to-end fashion. On two video action benchmarks of UCF101 and HMDB51, our framework achieves promising performance compared with the state-of-the-art.