This paper presents MAUI, a system that enables fine-grained energy-aware offload of mobile code to the infrastructure. Previous approaches to these problems either relied heavily on programmer support to partition an application, or they were coarse-grained requiring full process (or full VM) migration. MAUI uses the benefits of a managed code environment to offer the best of both worlds: it supports fine-grained code offload to maximize energy savings with minimal burden on the programmer. MAUI decides at run-time which methods should be remotely executed, driven by an optimization engine that achieves the best energy savings possible under the mobile device’s current connectivity constrains. In our evaluation, we show that MAUI enables: 1) a resource-intensive face recognition application that consumes an order of magnitude less energy, 2) a latency-sensitive arcade game application that doubles its refresh rate, and 3) a voice-based language translation application that bypasses the limitations of the smartphone environment by executing unsupported components remotely.