Portrait of Philip A. Chou

Philip A. Chou

Principal Researcher

About

Philip A. Chou received the BSE degree from Princeton University and the MS degree from the University of California, Berkeley, both in electrical engineering and computer science, and the PhD degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University. He was a Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, a Member of Research Staff at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, CA, and manager of the compression group at VXtreme, an Internet video startup in Mountain View, CA, before it was acquired by Microsoft. Currently, he is a Principal Researcher with Microsoft Research in Redmond, WA. Dr. Chou has served as Consulting Associate Professor at Stanford University, Affiliate Associate Professor at the University of Washington, and Adjunct Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has well over a hundred peer-reviewed papers published and a similar number of patents issued or pending. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.

Please check out our work on Holoportation.

We are hosting the IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo in Seattle, July 11-15, 2016.

Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399, USA Phone: (425) 706-3869 Fax: (425) 936-7329 Business email: pachou at microsoft.com Personal email: philchou at msn.com

 

Projects

Holoportation

Holoportation is a new type of 3D capture technology that allows high-quality 3D models of people to be reconstructed, compressed and transmitted anywhere in the world in real time. When combined with mixed reality displays such as HoloLens,…

PinDrop

Established: May 28, 2015

The PinDrop project focuses on building the substrate for supporting high-quality real-time streaming over wired and wireless networks. Context Real-time streaming across the wide-area network (WAN) is key to several existing and anticipated services, including voice and video conferencing (e.g.,…

ViiBoard: Vision-enhanced Immersive Interaction with Touch Board

Established: April 11, 2014

ViiBoard uses vision techniques to significantly enhance the user experience on large touch displays (e.g. Microsoft Perceptive Pixel) in two areas: human computer interaction and immersive remote collaboration. Simple Setup ViiBoard uses only an RGBD camera (Microsoft Kinect), mounted on…

Publications

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Other

Books and Book Chapters

  1. P. A. Chou and M. van der Schaar, eds., Multimedia over IP and Wireless Networks: Compression, Networking, and Systems, Elsevier, 2007.
  2. P. A. Chou, “Streaming Media on Demand and Live Broadcast,” in Multimedia over IP and Wireless Networks: Compression, Networking, and Systems, P. A. Chou and M. van der Schaar, eds., Elsevier, 2007.
  3. M. van der Schaar and P. A. Chou, “Multimedia Networking and Communication: Principles and Challenges,” in Multimedia over IP and Wireless Networks: Compression, Networking, and Systems, P. A. Chou and M. van der Schaar, eds., Elsevier, 2007.

Magazine Articles

  1. P. A. Chou and Y. Wu, “Network Coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 5, September 2007.
  2. Y. Altunbasak, J. Apostolopoulos, P. A. Chou, and B.-H. Juang, “Realizing the Vision of Immersive Communication,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, January 2011.
  3. P. A. Chou, F.G.B. De Natale, E. Magli, and E. Steinbach, “Trends in Multimedia Signal Processing,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, November 2011.

Journal Publications

  1. P.A. Chou, T. Lookabaugh, and R.M. Gray, “Entropy-constrained vector quantization,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp.31-42, January 1989. Signal Processing Society Paper Award.
  2. P.A. Chou, T. Lookabaugh, and R.M. Gray, “Optimal pruning with applications to tree-structured source coding and modeling,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 299-315, March 1989. Nominated for Information Theory Society Paper Award.
  3. P.A. Chou, “The capacity of the Kanerva associative memory,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 281-298, March 1989.
  4. T. Lookabaugh, E.A. Riskin, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable rate vector quantization for speech, image, and video compression,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 186-199, January 1993.
  5. E.A. Riskin, T. Lookabaugh, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable rate vector quantization for medical image compression,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.290-298, September 1990.
  6. P.A. Chou, “Optimal partitioning for classification and regression trees,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 340-354, April 1991.
  7. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, E.A. Riskin, and R.M. Gray, “A progressive universal noiseless coder,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 108-117, January 1994.
  8. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using Markov source models,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 602-617, June 1994.
  9. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable-rate source coding theorems for stationary ergodic sources,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1920-1925, November 1994.
  10. P.A. Chou, M. Effros, and R.M. Gray, “A vector quantization approach to universal noiseless coding and quantization,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 1109-1138, July 1996.
  11. O. Avaro, P.A. Chou, A. Eleftheriadis, C. Herpel, C. Reader, J. Signes, “The MPEG-4 Systems and Description Languages: a way ahead in audio visual information representation,” Signal Processing: Image Communication Vol. 9., No. 4, pp. 385-431, May 1997.
  12. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, R.M. Gray, “Weighted Universal Image Compression,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 8, No. 10, pp. 1317-1329, October 1999.
  13. P. A. Chou, A. E. Mohr, A. Wang, and S. Mehrotra, “Error Control for Receiver-driven Layered Multicast of Audio and Video,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 3, No. 1, March 2001.
  14. P. A. Chou and Z. Miao, “Rate-distortion optimized streaming of packetized media,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 2006. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Prize Paper Award.
  15. X. Wu, S. Forchhammer and P. A. Chou, “Minimum Conditional Entropy Context Quantization,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, May 2001. Submitted.
  16. J. Ribas-Corbera, P. A. Chou, and S. Regunathan, “A generalized hypothetical reference decoder for H.264/AVC,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 7, July 2003.
  17. A. György, T. Linder, P. A. Chou, and B. J. Betts, “Do optimal entropy-constrained quantizers have a finite or infinite number of codewords?” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 49, No. 11, November 2003.
  18. J. Chakareski and P. A. Chou, “Application layer error correction coding for rate-distortion optimized streaming to wireless clients,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 52, No. 10, October 2004.
  19. S. Jaggi, P. Sanders, P. A. Chou, M. Effros, S. Egner, K. Jain, and L. Tolhuizen, “Polynomial time algorithms for multicast network code construction,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 51, No. 6, June 2005.
  20. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, Q. Zhang, K. Jain, W. Zhu, and S.-Y. Kung, “Network planning in wireless ad hoc networks: a cross-layer approach,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas on Communications, Vol. 23, No. 1, January 2005.
  21. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, and S.-Y. Kung, “Minimum-energy multicast in mobile ad hoc networks using network coding,” IEEE Transactions on Communications.Vol. 53, No. 11, November 2005.
  22. A. Ramamoorthy, K. Jain, P. A. Chou, and M. Effros, “Separating distributed source coding from network coding,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 52, No. 6, June 2006.
  23. K. Jain, L. Lovász, and P. A. Chou, “Building scalable and robust peer-to-peer overlay networks for broadcasting using network coding,” J. Distributed Computing, Springer, December 2006.
  24. J. Chakareski and P. A. Chou, “RaDiO Edge: Rate-distortion optimized proxy-driven streaming from the network edge,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 14, No. 6, December 2006.
  25. S. Sengupta, S. Liu, M. Chen, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “P2P streaming capacity,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, August 2011.
  26. M. Ponec, S. Sengupta, M. Chen, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Optimizing multi-rate peer-to-peer video conferencing applications,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 13, No. 5, October 2011.
  27. J. Apostolopoulos, P. A. Chou, B. Culbertson, A. Kalker, M. Trott, and S. Wee, “The road to immersive communication,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 4., April 2012.
  28. S. Sengupta, M. Chen, M. Ponec, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Distributed algorithms for utility maximization in peer-to-peer systems with applications to video delivery,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 20, no. 6, December 2012.
  29. J. Liao, P. A. Chou, C. Yuan, Y. Hu, and W. Zhu, “Online allocation of communication and computation resources for real-time multimedia services,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, April 2013.
  30. C. Zhang, Q. Cai, P. Chou, Z. Zhang, and R. Martin-Brualla, “Viewport: A Fully Distributed Immersive Teleconferencing System with Infrared Dot Pattern,” IEEE MultiMedia, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17-27, 2013.
  31. W. Sun, G. Cheung, P.A. Chou, D. Florencio, C. Zhang, and O. Au, “Rate-Constrained 3D Surface Estimation From Noise-Corrupted Multiview Depth Videos,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 23, no. 7, July 2014.
  32. Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, Q. Wu, P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, and Y. Jia, “Handling Occlusion and Large Displacement through Improved RGB-D Scene Flow Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, July 2015. Preprint.
  33. D. Thanou, P. A. Chou, and P. Frossard, “Graph-based compression of dynamic 3D point cloud sequences,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 25, no. 4, April 2016.
  34. R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Compression of 3D Point Clouds Using a Region-Adaptive Hierarchical Transform,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. To appear.
  35. R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Motion-Compensated Compression of Dynamic Voxelized Point Clouds,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Submitted for possible publication.
  36. R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Transform Coding for Point Clouds Using a Gaussian Process Model,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Submitted for possible publication.

Conference Publications

  1. P.A. Chou, “The Kanerva associative memory has exponential capacity,” IEEE Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, Denver, Colorado, November 1987. Also in Neural Information Processing Systems, D.Z. Anderson, ed., American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988.
  2. E.A. Riskin, T. Lookabaugh, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable-rate vector quantization for medical image compression with applications to progressive transmission,” SPIE Conference on Medical Imaging III: Image Capture and Display, SPIE Vol. 1901, Newport Beach, CA, January 1989.
  3. P.A Chou, “Application of entropy-constrained vector quantization to waveform coding of images,” SPIE Conference on Visual Communication and Image Processing, Philadelphia, PA, November 1989.
  4. P.A. Chou, “Recognition of equations using a two-dimensional stochastic context-free grammar,” SPIE Conference on Visual Communications and Image Processing, Philadelphia, PA, November 1989.
  5. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Conditional entropy-constrained vector quantization of linear predictive coefficients,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Albuquerque, NM, April 1990.
  6. R.A. Vander Kam, P.A. Chou, E.A. Riskin, and R.M. Gray, “An algorithm for joint vector quantization and halftoner design,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, San Francisco, CA, March 1992.
  7. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using Markov source models,” DARPA Document Understanding Workshop, Palo Alto, CA, May 1992.
  8. P.A. Chou and G.E. Kopec, “A consistent approach to document recognition using stochastic grammars,” DARPA Document Understanding Workshop, Palo Alto, CA, May 1992.
  9. P.A. Chou and G.E. Kopec, “A stochastic attribute grammar model of document production and its use in document recognition,” First International Workshop on Principles of Document Processing, Washington, DC, October 1992.
  10. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using Markov source models,” SPIE International Symposium on Electronic Imaging, San Jose, CA February 1993.
  11. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using Markov source models,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Minneapolis, MN, April 1993.
  12. B.D. Andrews, M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “A mean-removed variation of weighted universal vector quantization for image coding,” Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, March 1993.
  13. R.A. Vander Kam, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Combined halftoning and entropy-constrained vector quantization,” Society for Information Display International Symposium, Seattle, WA, May 1993.
  14. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Automatic generation of custom document image decoders,” ICDAR ’93: Second IAPR Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Tsukuba Science City, Japan, October 1993.
  15. R.A. Vander Kam, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Performance evaluation of greedy search algorithms for image halftoning and compression,” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, November 1993.
  16. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable dimension weighted universal vector quantization,” Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, March 1994.
  17. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Variable dimension vector quantization of linear predictive coefficients,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Adelaide, April 1994.
  18. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “One-pass adaptive universal vector quantization,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Adelaide, April 1994.
  19. D. Miller, K. Rose, and P.A. Chou, “Deterministic annealing for trellis quantizer and HMM design using Baum-Welch re-estimation,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Adelaide, April 1994.
  20. M. Vishwanath and P.A. Chou, “An efficient algorithm for hierarchical compression of video,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Austin, TX, November 1994.
  21. P.A. Chou and G.E. Kopec, “A stochastic grammar model of document production and its use in document image decoding,” SPIE International Symposium on Electronic Imaging, San Jose, CA, February 1995.
  22. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Weighted universal bit allocation,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Detroit, April 1995.
  23. N. Chaddha, M. Vishwanath, and P.A. Chou, “Hierarchical vector quantization of perceptually weighted block transforms,” Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, March 1995.
  24. N. Chaddha, P.A. Chou, and T.H.-Y. Meng, “Scalable compression based on tree structured vector quantization of perceptually weighted block, lapped, and wavelet transforms,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Washington, DC, October 1995.
  25. M. Effros and P.A. Chou, “Weighted universal transform coding: universal image compression with the Karhunen-Loeve transform,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Washington, DC, October 1995.
  26. N. Chaddha, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Constrained and recursive hierarchical table-lookup vector quantization,” Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, March 1996.
  27. Wang, Z. Xiong, P. A. Chou, and S. Mehrotra, “Three-dimensional wavelet coding of video with global motion compensation,” IEEE Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, pp. 404-414, March 1999.
  28. P. A. Chou, S. Mehrotra, and A. Wang, “Multiple description decoding of overcomplete expansions using projections onto convex sets,” IEEE Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, pp. 72-81, March 1999.
  29. T. Tokuyasu and P. A. Chou, “An iterative decoding approach to document image analysis,” IAPR Workshop on Document Layout Interpretation and its Applications, Bangalore, India, September 1999.
  30. A. Wang, G. Minami, Z. Xiong, S. Mehrotra, and P. A. Chou, “3-D wavelet coding of video with arbitrary regions of support,” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 1999.
  31. P. A. Chou, A. E. Mohr, A. Wang, and S. Mehrotra, “FEC and Pseudo-ARQ for Receiver-driven Layered Multicast of Audio and Video,” IEEE Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, pp. 440-449, March 2000.
  32. P. A. Chou and K. Ramchandran, “Clustering source/channel rate allocations for receiver-driven multicast with error control under a limited number of streams,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, New York, July 2000.
  33. T. Tokuyasu and P. A. Chou, “Turbo recognition: a statistical approach to layout analysis,” Electronic Imaging Conference on Document Recognition and Retrieval, San Jose, CA, Document Recognition VIII, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4307, pp. 123-129, January 2001.
  34. P. A. Chou and Z. Miao, “Rate-distortion optimized sender-driven streaming over best-effort networks,” IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Cannes, France, pp. 587-592, October 2001.
  35. J. Chakareski, P.A. Chou, and B. Aazhang, “Computing rate-distortion optimized policies for streaming media to wireless clients,” IEEE Data Compression Conference, Snowbird, UT, April 2002.
  36. P. A. Chou and A. Sehgal, “Rate-distortion optimized receiver-driven streaming over best-effort networks,” Packet Video Workshop, Pittsburg, PA, April 2002.
  37. V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, P. A. Chou, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Distributing streaming media content using cooperative networking,” ACM NOSSDAV, Miami Beach, FL, USA, May 2002.
  38. J. Chakareski and P. A. Chou, “Application layer error correction coding for rate-distortion optimized streaming to wireless clients,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Orlando, FL, May 2002.
  39. A. Sehgal and P. A. Chou, “Cost-distortion optimized caching of streaming media,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Orlando, FL, May 2002.
  40. A. Sehgal and P. A. Chou, “Cost-distortion optimized streaming media over DiffServ networks,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Lausanne, August 2002.
  41. J. Ribas-Corbera, P. A. Chou, S. Regunathan, “A flexible decoder buffer model for JVT video coding,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Rochester, NY, September 2002.
  42. J. Chakareski, P. A. Chou, and B. Girod, “Computing rate-distortion optimized policies for hybrid receiver/sender driven streaming of multimedia,” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, November 2002.
  43. J. Chakareski, P. A. Chou, and B. Girod, “Rate-distortion optimized streaming from the edge of the network,” IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, December 2002.
  44. P. A. Chou, H. J. Wang, and V. N. Padmanabhan, “Layered multiple description coding,” Packet Video Workshop, Nantes, France, April 2003.
  45. S. Regunathan, P. A. Chou, and J. Ribas-Corbera, “A generalized video complexity verifier for flexible decoding,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Barcelona, September 2003.
  46. P. A. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “Practical network coding,” Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Monticello, IL, October 2003. Invited paper.
  47. V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, and P. A. Chou, “Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming,” IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols, November 2003.
  48. V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, and P. A. Chou, “Supporting Heterogeneity and Congestion Control in Peer-to-Peer Multicast Streaming,” Third International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, San Diego, CA, February 2004.
  49. A. Ramamoorthy, K. Jain, P. A. Chou, and M. Effros, “Separating distributed source coding from network coding,” Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Monticello, IL, October 2004. Invited paper.
  50. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, and S.-Y. Kung, “Minimum-energy multicast in mobile ad hoc networks using network coding,” IEEE Information Theory Workshop, San Antonio, October 2004.
  51. C. Huang, P. A. Chou, and A. Klemets, “Optimal coding rate control for scalable streaming media,” Packet Video Workshop, Irvine, CA, December 2004.
  52. C. Huang, P. A. Chou, and A. Klemets, “Optimal control of multiple bit rates for streaming media,” Picture Coding Symposium, San Francisco, CA, December 2004.
  53. J. Li, P. A. Chou, and C. Zhang, “Mutualcast: An efficient mechanism for one-to-many content distribution,” ACM SIGCOMM ASIA Workshop, April 2005.
  54. K. Jain, L. Lovász, and P. A. Chou, “Building scalable and robust peer-to-peer overlay networks for broadcasting using network coding,” ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, Las Vegas, NV, July 2005.
  55. Y. Wu, J. Padhye, R. Chandra, V. Padmanabhan, and P. A. Chou, “The Local Mixing Problem,” Information Theory and its Applications, January 2006.
  56. Y. Yuan, P. Bahl, R. Chandra, P. A. Chou, J. I. Ferrell, T. Moscibroda, S. Narlanka, Y. Wu, “KNOWS: Cognitive Radio Networks Over White Spaces,” IEEE DySpan, Dublin, Ireland, April 2007.
  57. Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, L.-W. He, and P. A. Chou, “Energy-based sound source localization and gain normalization for ad hoc microphone arrays,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Honolulu, HI, April 2007.
  58. Minghua Chen, Zicheng Liu, Li-wei He, Philip A. Chou, and Zhengyou Zhang, “Energy-based position estimation of microphones and speakers,” Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Paltz, NY, October 2007.
  59. J. P. Dmochowski, Z. Liu, and P. A. Chou, “Blind source separation in a distributed microphone meeting environment for improved teleconferencing,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Las Vegas, NV, April 2008.
  60. M. Chen, S. Sengupta, M. Ponec, P. A. Chou, and J. Li, “Peer-to-peer utility maximization,” Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton, NJ, March 2008 (invited paper).
  61. M. Chen, M. Ponec, Sudipta Sengupta, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Utility Maximization in Peer-to-peer Systems,” ACM SIGMETRICS 2008, Annapolis, Maryland, June 2008.
  62. S. Sengupta, M. Chen, P. A. Chou, and J. Li, “On optimality of routing for multi-source multicast communication scenarios with node uplink constraints,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Toronto, ON, July 2008.
  63. S. Liu, M. Chiang, S. Sengupta, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “P2P Streaming Capacity for Heterogeneous Users with Degree Bounds,” Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, September 2008.
  64. S. Junuzovic, R. Hegde, Z. Zhang, P. A. Chou, C. Zhang, Z. Liu, “Requirements and Recommendations for an Enhanced Meeting Viewing Experience,” ACM Multimedia, Vancouver, BC, October 2008.
  65. Y. Wu, Y. C. Hu, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “The Delay Region for P2P File Transfer,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, June 2009.
  66. M. Ponec, Sudipta Sengupta, M. Chen, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Multi-rate Peer-to-Peer Video Conferencing: A Distributed Approach using Scalable Coding,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME), New York, NY, June 2009 (plenary paper). Best Paper Award.
  67. M. Chen, M. Chiang, P. A. Chou, J. Li, S. Liu, and S. Sengupta, “P2P Streaming Capacity: Survey and Recent Results,” Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, September 2009.
  68. S. Liu, M. Chen, S. Sengupta, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “P2P Streaming Capacity under Node Degree Bound,” IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Genoa, Italy, June 2010.
  69. B. Byun, A. Awasthi, P. A. Chou, A. Kapoor, B. Lee, M. Czerwinski, “Honest Signals in Video Conferencing,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Barcelona, Spain, July 2011.
  70. S. Mehrotra, W. Chen, Z. Zhang, and P. A. Chou, “Realistic audio in immersive video conferencing,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Barcelona, Spain, July 2011.
  71. S. Mehrotra, Z. Zhang, Q. Cai, C. Zhang, and P. A. Chou, “Low-Complexity, Near-Lossless Coding of Depth Maps from Kinect-Like Depth Cameras,” IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP), Hangzhou, China, October 2011.
  72. J. Liao, C. Yuan, W.Zhu, and P. A. Chou, “‘Virtual mixer: Real-time audio mixing across clients and the cloud for multiparty conferencing,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, March 2012.
  73. J. Wang, C. Zhang, W. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Z. Xiong, and P. A. Chou, “3D Scene Reconstruction by Multiple Structured-Light Based Commodity Depth Cameras,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, March 2012.
  74. S. Liu, P. A. Chou, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and C.-W. Chen, “Virtual view reconstruction using temporal information,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Melbourne, Australia, July 2012.
  75. F. Ribiero, D. Florencio, P. A. Chou, and Z. Zhang, “Auditory Augmented Reality: Sonification for the Visually Impaired,” IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP), Banff, Canada, September 2012.
  76. P. Wan, E. Cheung, P. A. Chou, and D. Florencio, “Precision enhancement of 3D surfaces from multiple quantized depth maps,” IVMSP, June 2013.
  77. W. Sun, E. Cheung, P. A. Chou, D. Florencio, C. Zhang, and O. C. Au, “Rate-distortion optimized 3D reconstruction from noise-corrupted multiview depth videos,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME), July 2013.
  78. A. Kirmani, A. Benedetti, and P. A. Chou, “SPUMIC: Simultaneous Phase Unwrapping and Multipath Interference Cancellation in Time-of-Flight Cameras using Spectal Methods,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia & Expo (ICME), July 2013.
  79. H. Q. Nguyen, P. A. Chou, and Y. Chen, “Compression of Human Body Sequences Using Graph Wavelet Filter Banks,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, May 2014. Best Student Paper Award (2nd place).
  80. M. Gonzalez-Franco and P. A. Chou, “Non-linear modeling of eye gaze perception as a function of gaze and head direction,” IEEE Int’l Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), September 2014.
  81. K. Higuchi, Y. Chen, P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “ImmerseBoard: Immersive Telepresence Experience using a Digital Whiteboard,” ACM SIGCHI Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), April 2015.  Video available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCU1Ifr5VUc&list=PLOynw4iQRT4S1DYov_-zdM6QAXlFSWl46.
  82. D. Thanou, P. A. Chou, and P. Frossard, “Graph-based motion estimation and compensation for dynamic 3D point cloud compression,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), September 2015.
  83. A. Anis, P. A. Chou, and A. Ortega, “Compression of dynamic 3D point clouds using subdivisional meshes and graph wavelet transforms,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), March 2016. Invited to special session on Signal Processing on Graphs.
  84. J. Jiang, R. Das, G. Ananthanarayanan, P. A. Chou, V. Padmanabhan, V. Sekar, E. Dominique, M. Goliszewski, D. Kukoleca, R. Vafin, and H. Zhang, “VIA: Improving Internet Telephony Call Quality Using Predictive Relay Selection,” ACM SIGCOMM, August 2016.
  85. P. A. Chou and R. L. de Queiroz, “Gaussian Process Transforms,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), September 2016. Invited to special session on Graph-Based Multi-Dimensional Image Data Compression.

Conference Publications (abstracts only)

  1. P.A. Chou and R.M. Gray, “On decision trees for pattern recognition,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Ann Arbor, MI, October 1986. Abstract only.
  2. T. Lookabaugh, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Pruned tree-structured vector quantization,” Third Annual Cornell Summer Workshop on Systems, Controls, and Communications, Ithaca, NY, July 1987. Abstract only.
  3. P.A Chou, T. Lookabaugh, and R.M. Gray, “Pruned tree-structured source coding,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Kobe, Japan, June 1988. Abstract only.
  4. P.A. Chou, T. Lookabaugh, and R.M. Gray, “Entropy-constrained vector quantization,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Kobe, Japan, June 1988. Abstract only.
  5. E.A. Riskin, T. Lookabaugh, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Applications of variable-rate vector quantization to speech and image coding,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Kobe, Japan, June 1988. Abstract only.
  6. P.A. Chou, “Using decision trees for noiseless compression,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, San Diego, CA January 1990. Abstract only.
  7. P.A. Chou, “A Cocke-Younger-Kasami parsing algorithm for high-dimensional context-free grammars,” Workshop on Structural and Syntactic Pattern Recognition, Murray Hill, NJ, July 1990. Summary only.
  8. P.A. Chou, “Code clustering for weighted universal VQ and other applications,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Budapest, June 1991. Summary only.
  9. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Locally optimal variable-to-variable length source coding with respect to a fidelity criterion,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Budapest, June 1991. Summary only.
  10. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, E.A. Riskin, and R.M. Gray, “A progressive universal noiseless coder,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Budapest, June 1991. Summary only.
  11. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using Markov source models,” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, October 1992. Abstract only.
  12. P.A. Chou and M. Effros, “Rate and distortion redundancies for universal source coding with respect to a fidelity criterion,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, San Antonio, TX, January 1993. Summary only.
  13. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Variable-rate source coding theorems for stationary nonergodic sources,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Trondheim, Norway, June 1994. Summary only.
  14. M. Effros, P.A. Chou, and R.M. Gray, “Rates of convergence in adaptive universal vector quantization,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Trondheim, Norway, June 1994. Summary only.
  15. P.A. Chou, “The distortion of vector quantizers trained on n vectors decreases to the optimum as Op(1/n),” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Trondheim, Norway, June 1994. Summary only.
  16. P.A. Chou, M. Effros, and R.M. Gray, “Universal quantization of parametric sources has redundancy (k/2)log n/n,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Whistler, British Columbia, September 1995. Summary only.
  17. P.A. Chou and B.J. Betts, “When optimal entropy-constrained quantizers have only a finite number of codewords,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Cambridge, MA, September 1998. Summary only.
  18. X. Wu, P. A. Chou, and X. Xue, “Minimum conditional entropy context quantization,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Sorrento, Italy, June 2000. Summary only.
  19. S. Mehrotra and P. A. Chou, “On optimal frame expansions for multiple description quantization,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Sorrento, Italy, June 2000. Summary only.
  20. S. Jaggi, P. A. Chou, and K. Jain, “Low complexity algebraic multicast network codes,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Yokohama, Japan, June 2003. Summary only.
  21. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, and K. Jain, “A comparison of network coding and tree packing,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Chicago, IL, June 2004. Summary only.
  22. P. A. Chou and R. L. de Queiroz, “Modeling Signals Embedded in a Euclidean Domain,” Graph Signal Processing (GSP) workshop, May 2016.  Abstract only.

Technical Reports

  1. P. A. Chou, A. E. Mohr, A. Wang, and S. Mehrotra, “FEC and Pseudo-ARQ for Receiver-driven Layered Multicast of Audio and Video,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-99-86, November 1999.
  2. P. A. Chou, “Joint Source/Channel Coding: a position paper,” NSF Workshop on Source-Channel Coding, San Diego, October 1999.
  3. P. A. Chou and Z. Miao, “Rate-distortion optimized streaming of packetized media,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2001-35, February 2001.
  4. V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, P. A. Chou, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Distributing Streaming Media Content using Cooperative Networking,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2002-37, April 2002.
  5. J. Chakareski and P. A. Chou, “Application layer error correction coding for rate-distortion optimized streaming to wireless clients,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2002-81, August 2002.
  6. V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, and P. A. Chou, “Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2003-11, March 2003.
  7. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, and S.-Y. Kung, “Information exchange in wireless networks with network coding and physical-layer broadcast,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2004-78, August 2004.
  8. Y. Wu, P. A. Chou, Q. Zhang, K. Jain, W. Zhu, and S.-Y. Kung, “Network planning in wireless ad hoc networks: a cross-layer approach,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2004-74, August 2004.
  9. K. Jain, L. Lovász, and P. A. Chou, “Building scalable and robust peer-to-peer overlay networks for broadcasting using network coding,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2004-135, December 2004.
  10. C. Huang, P. A. Chou, and A. Klemets, “Optimal coding rate control of scalable and multi bit rate streaming media,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2005-47, April 2005.
  11. P. A. Chou and Y. Wu, “Network Coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” Microsoft Research Technical Report TR-2007-70, June 2007.
  12. M. Chen, M. Ponec, S. Sengupta, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Utility maximization in peer-to-peer systems,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2008-47, March 2008.
  13. S. Sengupta, S. Liu, M. Chen, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “P2P Streaming Capacity,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2009-68, June 2009.
  14. J. Liao, P. A. Chou, C. Yuan, Y. Hu, and W. Zhu, “Online Allocation of Communication and Computation Resources for Real-time Multimedia Services,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2012-6, January 2012.
  15. C. Zhang, Q. Cai, P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, and R. Martin-Brualla, “Viewport: A Fully Distributed Immersive Teleconferencing System with Infrared Dot Pattern,” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2012-60, April 2012.
  16. Phil Pitts, Arrigo Benedetti, Malcolm Slaney, and Phil Chou, “Time of Flight Tracer,” no. MSR-TR-2014-142, 8 November 2014.
  17. Cha Zhang, Dinei Florencio, and Philip Chou, “Graph Signal Processing – A Probabilistic Framework,” no. MSR-TR-2015-31, April 2015.

Invited Presentations

  1. P.A. Chou, “Vector quantization for pattern recognition,” University of California, Electrical Engineering Department, Davis, CA, December 1986.
  2. P.A. Chou, “Why the Itakura-Saito distortion should be used for speech recognition,” SRI, Speech Recognition Group, Menlo Park, CA, December 1986.
  3. P.A. Chou, “An iterative descent algorithm for finding maximum mutual information partitions,” IBM, Speech Recognition Group, Yorktown Heights, NY, December 1987.
  4. P.A. Chou, O. Tremois, and G.E. Kopec, “Recognition of typeset equations, text, and music using stochastic grammars,” Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics, Providence, RI, February 1992.
  5. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Locally optimal variable-to-variable length source coding with respect to a fidelity criterion,” AT&T Bell Laboratories, Information Principles Laboratory, Murray Hill, NJ, February 1992.
  6. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Discovering structure in signals using variable dimension vector quantization,” IEEE Information Theory Society, Santa Clara Chapter, Stanford, CA, March 1992.
  7. P.A. Chou, “Weighted universal compression,” 25th Annual Symposium on the Interface of Computer Science and Statistics, San Diego, CA, April 1993.
  8. P.A. Chou and T. Lookabaugh, “Variable dimension vector quantization of LPC speech,” IEEE Communication Theory Workshop, Marathon Island, FL, April 1993.
  9. P.A. Chou, “Universal data compression,” Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics, Providence, RI, September 1993.
  10. P.A. Chou, “Universal data compression,” 3rd World Congress of the Bernoulli Society and the 57th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Chapel Hill, NC, June 1994.
  11. P.A. Chou, “Variable dimension vector quantization of linear predictive coefficients,” SRI, Speech Recognition Group, Menlo Park, CA, August 1994.
  12. P.A. Chou, “Universal data compression,” University of California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Berkeley, CA, September 1994.
  13. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding,” IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Austin, TX, November 1994.
  14. P.A. Chou, M. Vishwanath, and N. Chaddha, “An efficient algorithm for video data compression over heterogeneous networks,” University of California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Berkeley, CA, April 1995.
  15. P.A. Chou, M. Vishwanath, and N. Chaddha, “An efficient algorithm for video data compression over heterogeneous networks,” University of Maryland, Department of Electrical Engineering, College Park, MD, September 1995.
  16. P.A. Chou, “Universal data compression,” University of California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Berkeley, CA, January 1995.
  17. P.A. Chou, “The evolving MPEG-4 architecture,” Intel Corporation, Architecture Labs, Portland, OR, November 1996.
  18. P.A. Chou, “MPEG-4: a standard for interactive audiovisual communication,” Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA, March 1997.
  19. P.A. Chou, “Image and video coding standards,” University of Washington, Department of Electrical Engineering, Seattle, WA, November 1998.
  20. P.A. Chou, S. Mehrotra, and A. Wang, “Multiple description decoding of overcomplete expansions using projections onto convex sets,” Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA, January 1999.
  21. P. A. Chou, A. E. Mohr, A. Wang, and S. Mehrotra, “FEC and Pseudo-ARQ for Receiver-driven Layered Multicast,” IEEE Communication Theory Workshop, Aptos, CA, May 1999.
  22. P. A. Chou, Z. Miao, J. Chakareski, and A. Sehgal, “Rate-Distortion Optimized Streaming Media,” Princeton University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Corporate Affiliates Program, Princeton, NJ, May 2002.
  23. T.Chen, L. Chariglione, P.A. Chou, E.J. Delp, B. Girod, and D. Seligmann, panelists, “Defining the next generation challenges in media composition, compression, and communication R&D,” H. Yu and W. Zeng, organizers, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Exhibition, Lausanne, August 2002.
  24. P. A. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “Network coding for the Internet,” IEEE Communication Theory Workshop, Capri, May 2004. Invited paper. Also presented at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institut de systèmes de communication, May 2004.
  25. P. A. Chou, “Network coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” Banff International Research Station Workshop on Multimedia and Mathematics, July 2005. Invited talk.
  26. P. A. Chou, “Network coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” General Dynamics Distinguished Lecture Series, U. Michigan, March 2006. Invited talk.
  27. P. A. Chou, “Network coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” 23rd Biennial Symposium on Communications, Kingston, ON, May 2006. Invited Keynote talk.
  28. P. A. Chou, “Network coding for the Internet and Wireless Networks,” IEEE Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop, Victoria, October 2006. Invited Overview talk.
  29. P. A. Chou, “[It’s not just the plumbing…] It’s the application…,” Clean Slate Networking Research Workshop, Stanford Computer Forum, Stanford, CA, March 2007. Panel presentation.
  30. P. A. Chou, S. Sengupta, M. Chen, and J. Li, “Packing multicast trees,” Workshop on Modeling and Analysis of Computer and Communication Systems, Princeton University, May 2008.
  31. P. A. Chou, “Telepresence : from Virtual to Reality,” Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop, St. Malo, France, October 2010.  Invited Keynote talk.
  32. P. A. Chou, “The Future of Human Communication,” IEEE Globecom, Miami, Florida, December 2010.  Invited Plenary talk.
  33. P. A. Chou, “Directions in Immersive Communication,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2011.  Invited Keynote talk.
  34. P. A. Chou, “Telepresence : from Virtual to Reality,” Ubiquitous Virtual Reality Lab Seminar, GIST, Gwangju, Korea, November 2011. Invited talk.
  35. P. A. Chou, “Coding for Augmented and Virtual Reality,” Packet Video Workshop, Seattle, July 2016.  Invited Plenary talk.
  36. P. A. Chou, “Telepresence: From Virtual to Reality – A Reprise,” Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop, Montreal, Canada, September 2016. Invited Keynote talk.

Tutorials

  1. M. Médard, R. Koetter, and P. A. Chou, “Network Coding: A New Network Design Paradigm,” full-day tutorial, IEEE Globecom, Dallas, TX, December 2004.
  2. M. Médard, R. Koetter, and P. A. Chou, “Network Coding: A New Network Design Paradigm,” half-day tutorial, IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Adelaide, September 2005.
  3. Y. Wu and P. A. Chou, “Network Coding,” tutorial, IEEE Infocom, Anchorage, AK, May 2007.
  4. Y. Wu and P. A. Chou, “Network Coding,” tutorial, ACM Sigmetrics, San Diego, CA, June 2007.

Special Issues

  1. Special issue on Vector Quantization, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1996.
  2. W. Zeng, K. Nahrstedt, P. A. Chou, A. Ortega, P. Frossard, and H. H. Yu, “Introduction to the Special Issue on Streaming Media,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 6, No. 2, April 2004.

Grant Proposals

  1. with R.M. Gray, PI, “Applications of information theory to pattern recognition and the design of decision tree classifiers,” NSF Division of Information Science and Technology, Grant IST-8509860, 1985-1988.

MPEG Proposals

  1. M. Agrawala, A. Beers, N. Chaddha, P.A. Chou, R.M. Gray, R. Joshi, and M. Vishwanath, “A Video Synthesizer Tool and Related Objects,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 input document M0544, Dallas, TX, October 1995.
  2. S. Regunathan, P. A. Chou, and J. Ribas-Corbera, “Video Complexity Verifier (VCV) for HRD,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 and ITU-T SG16 Q.6 Joint Video Team input document JVT-B050, Geneva, January 2002.
  3. C. Loop, Q. Cai, S. Orts Escolano, and P.A. Chou, “Microsoft Voxelized Upper Bodies – A Voxelized Point Cloud Dataset,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 Joint WG11/WG1 (MPEG/JPEG) input document m38673/M72012, Geneva, May 2016.
  4. P.A. Chou and R.L. de Queiroz, “Transform Coder for Point Cloud Attributes,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 input document m38674, Geneva, May 2016.
  5. P.A. Chou and R.L. de Queiroz, “Rate-Distortion Optimized Coder for Dynamic Voxelized Point Clouds,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 input document m38675, Geneva, May 2016.

Theses

  1. P.A. Chou, “Motion compensation with background prediction,” B.S.E. Thesis, Princeton University, 1980.
  2. P.A. Chou, “A procedure to design efficient probabilistic decision trees,” M.S. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1983.
  3. P.A. Chou, “Applications of information theory to pattern recognition and the design of decision trees and trellises,” Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1988.

Miscellaneous

  1. with J. Allen, M. Ostendorf, R. Willensky, et al., “In Memoriam: Gary Edward Kopec (1952-1998),” International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, Vol. 1, No. 4, May 1999.

Patents

  1. P.A. Chou, “Image recognition method using two-dimensional stochastic grammars,” US patent 5,020,112 issued May 28, 1991.
  2. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Image recognition using finite-state networks,” US patent 5,321,773 issued June 14, 1994.
  3. G.E. Kopec, A.C. Kam, and P.A. Chou, “Document image decoding using modified branch-and-bound methods,” US patent 5,526,444 issued June 11, 1996.
  4. G.E. Kopec, P.A. Chou, L.T. Niles, “Automatic training of character templates using a text line image source, a text line transcription, and a line image source model,” US patent 5,594,809 issued January 14, 1997.
  5. M. Vishwanath and P.A. Chou, “Video image compression using weighted wavelet hierarchical vector quantization,” US patent 5,602,589 issued February 11, 1997.
  6. V. Balasubramanian, F.R. Chen, P.A. Chou, D.G. Kimber, A.D. Poon, K.A. Weber, and L.D. Wilcox, “Real-time audio recording system for automatic speaker indexing,” US patent 5,606,643 issued February 25, 1997.
  7. V. Balasubramanian, F.R. Chen, P.A. Chou, D.G. Kimber, A.D. Poon, K.A. Weber, and L.D. Wilcox, “Segmentation of audio data for indexing of conversational speech for real-time or postprocessing applications,” US patent 5,655,058 issued August 5, 1997.
  8. D. Bloomberg, L.T. Niles, G.E. Kopec, and P.A. Chou, “Method for aligning a text image to a transcription of the image,” US patent 5,689,585 issued November 18, 1997.
  9. G.E. Kopec, P.A. Chou, L.T. Niles, “Automatic training of character templates using a transcription and a two-dimensional image source model,” US patent 5,689,620 issued November 18, 1997.
  10. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Method of producing character templates using unsegmented samples,” US patent 5,706,364 issued January 6, 1998.
  11. G.E. Kopec, P.A. Chou, and L.T. Niles, “Method and system for automatic transcription correction,” US patent 5,883,986 issued March 16, 1999.
  12. G.E. Kopec and P.A. Chou, “Unsupervised training of character templates using unsegmented samples,” US patent 5,956,419 issued September 21, 1999.
  13. E.I. Levine and P.A. Chou, “Error correction and loss recovery of packets over a computer network,” US patent 6,000,053 issued December 7, 1999.
  14. M. Vishwanath, P.A. Chou, and N. Chaddha, “Method for transmitting data using an embedded bit stream produced in a hierarchical table-lookup vector quantizer,” US patent 6,345,126 issued February 5, 2002.
  15. A.E. Klemets and P.A. Chou, “Interleaved multiple media stream for synchronized transmission over a computer network,” US patent 6,449,653 issued September 10, 2002.
  16. P.A. Chou, S. Mehrotra, and A. Wang, “Apparatus and method for unequal error protection in multiple-description coding using overcomplete expansions,” US patent 6,460,153 issued October 1, 2002.
  17. P.A. Chou, S. Mehrotra, and A. Wang, “Reconstruction of missing coefficients of overcomplete linear transforms using projections onto convex sets,” US Patent 6,470,469 issued October 22, 2002.
  18. P.A. Chou, A. Wang, and S. Mehrotra, “Receiver-driven layered error correction multicast over heterogeneous packet networks,” US Patent 6,532,562 issued March 11, 2003.
  19. P.A. Chou, A. Wang, S. Mehrotra, and A.E. Mohr, “Receiver-driven layered error correction multicast over heterogeneous packet networks,” US Patent 6,594,798 issued July 15, 2003.
  20. P.A. Chou, “Multimedia presentation latency minimization,” US patent 6,637,031 issued October 21, 2003.
  21. M. Vishwanath, P.A. Chou, and N. Chaddha, “A method for transmitting data using an embedded bit stream produced in a hierarchical table-lookup vector quantizer (continuation),” US patent 6,671,416 issued December 30, 2003.
  22. J. Hull, P.A. Chou, G.E. Kopec, and D. Arnon, “Automatic training of layout parameters in a 2D image model,” US patent 6,687,404 issued February 3, 2004.
  23. P.A. Chou, “System and method for media streaming,” US Patent 6,778,533 issued August 17, 2004.
  24. P.A. Chou, A. Wang, S. Mehrotra, and A.E. Mohr, “Receiver-driven layered error correction multicast over heterogeneous packet networks,” US Patent 6,996,097 issued February 7, 2006.
  25. P.A. Chou, V.N. Padmanabhan, and J. Wang, “Layered multiple description coding,” US Patent 7,222,285 issued May 22, 2007.
  26. D. Florencio, P.A. Chou, and L.-W. He, “System and method for providing high-quality stretching and compression of a digital audio signal,” US Patent 7,337, 108 issued February 26, 2008.
  27. P.A. Chou and K. Jain, “System and method for broadcasting information over a network,” US patent 7,349,440 issued March 25, 2008.
  28. P.A. Chou, A. Wang, S. Mehrotra, and A.E. Mohr, “Receiver-driven layered error correction multicast over heterogeneous packet networks,” US Patent 7,366,172 issued April 29, 2008.
  29. A.E. Klemets, R. Weiss, J. Ribas-Corbera, and P.A. Chou, “Streaming of variable bit rate multimedia content,” US patent 7,391,717 issued June 24, 2008.
  30. V.N. Padmanabhan, J. Wang, and P.A. Chou, “Method and systems for streaming data,” US Patent 7,400,577 issued July 15, 2008.
  31. P.A. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “System and method for efficient broadcast of information over a network,” US patent 7,408,938 issued August 5, 2008.
  32. D. Florencio and P.A. Chou, “A system and method for real-time detection and preservation of speech onset in a signal,” US patent 7,412,376 issued August 12, 2008.
  33. P.A. Chou, “Multimedia presentation latency minimization,” US patent 7,424,730 issued September 9, 2008.
  34. P.A. Chou, V.N. Padmanabhan, and J. Wang, “Layered multiple description coding,” US Patent 7,426,677 issued September 16, 2008.
  35. A. D. Howell, D. Milstein, L. Criddle, M. Malueg, and P. A. Chou, “Extensible metadata structure,” US Patent 7,502,364 issued March 10, 2009.
  36. K. Jain, L. Lovasz, and P. A. Chou, “Scalable overlay network,” US Patent 7,529,198 issued May 5, 2009.
  37. P. A. Chou, A. Klemets, and C. Huang, “System and process for controlling the coding bit rate of streaming media data employing a limited number of supported coding bit rates,” US Patent 7,536,469 issued May 19, 2009.
  38. P. A. Chou, A. Klemets, and C. Huang, “System and process for performing an exponentially weighted moving average on streaming data to establish a moving average bit rate,” US Patent 7,543,073 issued June 2, 2009.
  39. J. Li, C. Zhang, and P. A. Chou, “Efficient one-to-many content distribution in a peer-to-peer computer network,” US Patent 7,593,333 issued September 22, 2009.
  40. J. Ribas-Corbera and P. A. Chou, “Generalized reference decoder for image or video processing,” US Patent 7,593,466 issued September 22, 2009.
  41. D. Florencio, L. He, and P. A. Chou, “A system and method for real-time jitter control and packet loss concealment in an audio signal,” US Patent 7,596,488 issued September 29, 2009.
  42. P. A. Chou, K. Jain, and D. Garg, “Congestion adaptive network data routing,” US Patent 7,613,121 issued November 3, 2009.
  43. A. D. Florencio and P.A. Chou, “Packet loss concealment for overlapped transform codecs,” US Patent 7,627,467 issued December 1, 2009.
  44. J. Li, S. Sengupta, M. Ponec, M. Chen, and P. A. Chou, “Rate-controllable peer-to-peer data stream routing,” US Patent 7,636,789 issued December 22, 2009.
  45. D. Teodosiu, P. A. Chou, A. Heron, C. Huang, T. Kleinpeter, J. Li, E. Schwartz, J. T. Spivey, D. C. Steere, and Y. Wu, “Scheduling connections between peers in a peer-to-peer file sharing environment,” US Patent 7,643,491 issued January 5, 2010.
  46. J. Ribas-Corbera and P.A. Chou, “Generalized reference decoder for image or video processing,” US Patent 7,646,816 issued January 12, 2010.
  47. P. A. Chou, A. Wang, S. Mehrotra, and A. Mohr, “Receiver-driven layered error correction multicast over heterogeneous packet networks,” US Patent 7,697,514 issued April 13, 2010.
  48. S. Liu, S. Sengupta, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Models for routing tree selection in peer-to-peer communication,” US Patent 7,738,406 issued June 15, 2010.
  49. P. A. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “System and method for efficient broadcast of information over a network,” US Patent 7,760,728 issued July 20, 2010.
  50. V. N. Padmanabhan, J. Wang, and P. A. Chou, “System and Method for Distributing Streaming Content through Cooperative Networking,” US Patent 7,792,982 issued September 7, 2010.
  51. Z. Zhang, X. D. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Zhang, P. A. Chou, and C. Huitema, “Participant positioning in multimedia conferencing,” US Patent 7,840,638 issued November, 23 2010.
  52. W. V. Barkley, P. A. Chou, R. J. Crinon, and T. Moore, “Techniques to perform rate matching for multimedia conference calls,” US Patent 7,898,950 issued March 1, 2011.
  53. D. Florencio and P. A. Chou, “Real-time detection and preservation of speech onset in a signal,” US Patent 7,917,357 issued March 29, 2011.
  54. Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, P. A. Chou, and M. Chen, “Energy-based sound source localization and gain normalization,” US Patent 7,924,655 issued April 12, 2011.
  55. A. Hassan, C. Huitema, W. Stark, Y. Wu, and P. A. Chou, “FEC in cognitive multi-user OFDMA,” US Patent 7,929,623 issued April 19, 2011.
  56. J. Li, D. Teodosiu, P. A. Chou, C. Huang, E. Schwartz, J. T. Spivey, Y. Wu, and A. Heron, “Content synchronization in a file-sharing environment,” US Patent 7,953,785 issued May 31, 2011.
  57. D. Howell, D. Milstein, K. Wang, L. Criddle, P. A. Chou, S. Forbes, T. Moore, and M. Malueg, “Metadata collection,” US Patent 7,983,247 issued July 19, 2011.
  58. Y. Wu, J. D. Padhye, R. Chandra, V. N. Padmanabhan, P. A. Chou, and M. J. Khaki, “Local network coding for wireless networks,” US Patent 8,040,836 issued October 18, 2011.
  59. Z. Liu, R. Hegde, and P. A. Chou, “Virtual Media Input Device,” US Patent 8,140,715 issued March 20, 2012.
  60. J. Dmochowski, Z. Liu, and P. A. Chou, “Speech separation with microphone arrays,” US Patent 8,144,896 issued March 27, 2012.
  61. R. Hegde, Z. Liu, L. He, P. A. Chou, and C. A. Meek, “Collaborative media recommendation and sharing technique,” US Patent 8,200,681 issued June 12, 2012.
  62. D. Howell, D. Milstein, K. Wang, L. Criddle, P. A. Chou, S. Forbes, and T. Moore, “VoIP contextual information processing,” US Patent 8,228,824 issued July 24, 2012.
  63. M. Chen, M. Ponec, S. Sengupta, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Rate-controllable peer-to-peer data stream routing,” US Patent 8,260,951 issued September 4, 2012.
  64. S. Sengupta, M. Chen, J. Li, P. A. Chou, and M. Ponec, “Multi-rate peer-assisted data streaming,” US Patent 8,260,952 issued September 4, 2012.
  65. R. Hegde, C. Zhang, P. A. Chou, and Z. Liu, “Management of split audio video streams,” US Patent 8,276,195 issued September 25, 2012.
  66. D. Howell, D. Milstein, L. Criddle, P. A. Chou, and T. Moore, “Providing contextual information with a voicemail message,” US Patent 8,280,015 issued October 2, 2012.
  67. D. A. Florencio, A. Acero, W. Buxton, P. A. Chou, R. G. Cutler, J. Garms, C. Huitema, K. M. Quinn, D. A. Rosenfeld, and Z. Zhang “Audio Transform in Connection with Multiparty Communication,” US Patent 8,340,267 issued December 25, 2012.
  68. D. Howell, D. Milstein, L. Criddle, and P. A. Chou, “Processing a received voicemail message,” US Patent 8,385,513 issued February 26, 2013.
  69. D. A. Rosenfeld, Z. Liu, R. G. Cutler, P. A. Chou, C. Huitema, and K. M. Quinn, “Interest Determination for Auditory Enhancement,” US Patent 8,416,715 issued April 9, 2013.
  70. D. Milstein, D. A. Howell, L. Criddle, P. A. Chou, and T. Moore, “Providing contextual information with a voicemail message,” US Patent 8,483,368 issued July 9, 2013.
  71. R. Hegde, Z. Zhang, P. A. Chou, Z. Liu, C. Zhang, and S. Junuzovic, “Multi-device capture and spatial browsing of conferences”, US Patent 8,537,196 issued September 17, 2013.
  72. D. Florencio, P. A. Chou, and S. S. Kozat, “Forward error correction for media transmission,” US Patent 8,553,757 issued October 8, 2013.
  73. S. K. Cunnington, R. K. Hegde, K. Quinn, J. Li, P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, and D. Tan, “Detecting reactions and providing feedback to an interaction,” US Patent 8,670,018 issued March 11, 2014.
  74. P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, D. A. Florencio, Z. Liu, R. K. Hegde, and N. Chandrasekaran, “Immersive remote conferencing,” US Patent 8,675,067 issue March 18, 2014.
  75. W. V. Barkley, P. A. Chou, R. J. Crinon, and T. Moore, “Techniques for managing visual compositions for a multimedia conference call,” US Patent 8,773,494 issued July 8, 2014.
  76. P. A. Chou, Z. Zhang, and D. Florencio, “Augmented auditory perception for the visually impaired,” US Patent 8,797,386 issued August 5, 2014.
  77. Y. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Li, M. Chen, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, “Multiparty real time content delivery,” US Patent 8,824,470 issued September 2, 2014.
  78. D. Howell, D. Milstein, P. A. Chou, M. Malueg, and L. Criddle, “VoIP variable metadata,” US Patent 8,842,660 issued September 23, 2014.
  79. B. Byun, P. A. Chou, M. P. Czerwinski, A. Kapoor, and B. Lee, “Non-Linguistic Signal Detection and Feedback,” US Patent 8,963,987 issued February 24, 2015.
  80. D. Howell, L. Criddle, M. Malueg, P. A. Chou, and L. Smith, “Transmitting packet-based data items,” US Patent 8,971,217 issued March 3, 2015.
  81. W. V. Barkley, P. A. Chou, R. J. Crinon, and T. Moore, “Techniques for virtual conferencing servers,” US Patent 8,990,305 issued March 24, 2015.
  82. P.A. Chou, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Recovering dis-occluded areas using temporal information integration,” US Patent 9,031,357 issued May 12, 2015.
  83. C. Huang, J. Li, S. Mehrotra, P. A. Chou, F. Livni, H. Chen, J. Thaler, C. Zhang, and K. W. Ross, “Minimizing Network Latency in Interactive Internet Applications,” US Patent 9,059,817 issued June 16, 2015.
  84. J. Li, J. E. Oker, R. K. Hegde, D. A. F. Florencio, M. Pahud, S. K. Cunnington, P. A. Chou, and Z. Zhang, “Adaptive Meeting Management,” US Patent 9,111,263 issued August 18, 2015.

Over 30 other patents pending

Last updated 5/23/2016

Short Bio

Philip A. Chou received the BSE degree from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, in 1980, and the MS degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1983, both in electrical engineering and computer science, and the PhD degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1988. From 1988 to 1990, he was a Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ. From 1990 to 1996, he was a Member of Research Staff at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, CA. In 1997 he was manager of the compression group at VXtreme, an Internet video startup in Mountain View, CA, before it was acquired by Microsoft in 1997. From 1998 to the present, he has been a Principal Researcher with Microsoft Research in Redmond, Washington, managing the Communication and Collaboration Systems research group from 2004 to 2011. Dr. Chou has served as Consulting Associate Professor at Stanford University 1994-1995, Affiliate Associate Professor at the University of Washington 1998-2009, and Adjunct Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong since 2006.

Dr. Chou has longstanding research interests in signal data compression, signal processing, machine learning, communication theory, and information theory with applications to processing media such as dynamic point clouds and meshes, video, images, audio, speech, and documents. He served as Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory and Guest Editor for special issues in the IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia (TMM), and IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. He was a member of the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) Image and Multidimensional Signal Processing technical committee (IMDSP TC), member and Chair of the SPS Multimedia Signal Processing TC (MMSP TC), member of the ComSoc Multimedia TC, member of the IEEE SPS and Computer Society Fellow evaluation committees, member of the TMM and ICME Steering Committees, and member of the SPS Board of Governors.  He was the founding technical chair for the inaugural NetCod 2005 workshop, special session and panel chair for ICASSP 2007, publicity chair for the Packet Video Workshop 2009, technical co-chair for MMSP 2009, awards chair for ICIP 2015, and technical program co-chair for ICME 2016 and ICIP 2017.  He is a Fellow of the IEEE, a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and the IEEE Computer, Information Theory, Signal Processing, and Communications societies, and was an active member of the MPEG committee. He is the recipient, with Tom Lookabaugh, of the 1993 Signal Processing Society Paper Award; with Anshul Seghal, of the 2002 ICME Best Paper Award; with Zhourong Miao, of the 2007 IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Best Paper Award; and with Miroslav Ponec, Sudipta Sengupta, Minghua Chen, and Jin Li, of the 2009 ICME Best Paper Award, as well as co-author with Ha Q. Nguyen of the 2014 ICASSP Best Student Paper Award (second place).  He is co-editor, with Mihaela van der Schaar, of the 2007 book from Elsevier, Multimedia over IP and Wireless Networks.

Long Bio

Data Compression: A Recurring Theme

One of the recurring themes in my life has been video compression (aka video coding).  In 1976, as a Princeton freshman, for my father’s business of transmitting analog video over telephone lines, I explored the Haar and Hadamard transforms as computationally feasible ways of compressing video, predating the 1977 Chen and Smith paper introducing the DCT for image compression. In 1979, for my Princeton senior thesis, I implemented the world’s first video codec with multiple reference frames, a feature that is now found in all modern video codecs.  In 1984-1988, for my Stanford PhD, I invented the methodology of rate-distortion optimization using Lagrangians, which today is a core part of all modern video encoders.  In related work at Stanford, I proposed and developed pruned tree-structured coders, a variant of which is now used for variable blocksize coding in H264/265 (AVC/HEVC).  At the same time, I promoted the use of tree-structured coders for progressive image coding, one of the earliest examples of scalable coding used today.  In 1997, I led the compression team at VXtreme, where we produced the world’s first commercial streaming video on demand over the Internet.  VXtreme was later acquired by Microsoft.  Today Internet video is a staple of society from YouTube to Netflix, and soon all entertainment video will be streamed this way.  In the early 2000s, I developed the world’s first client-driven multi-bitrate solution to network rate adaptation for streaming media delivery.  It was implemented in Microsoft’s IIS Smooth Streaming, and through today’s DASH standard as well as Apple’s HLS, underlies all streaming media delivery solutions today.  I also invented the method of fast startup in streaming media players, by starting with low bitrate streams.  I believe this method, which allows playback to start nearly instantly despite the need to buffer several seconds of content, is used in essentially every streaming media player today.  In recent years, with the advent of dynamic volumetric 3D capture from real-time depth cameras such as Kinect, I have been developing new techniques for compressing both dynamic meshes and voxelized point clouds, focusing on immersive human-to-human communication.  The significance of these techniques will be seen as volumetric AR and VR become mainstream over the coming decade.

Beyond Compression:  Making Computers See, Talk, Hear, Think, and Other Things not Usually Associated with Computers

Besides video compression, I have been intimately involved with computation and machine intelligence over the years.  I became president of my high school computer club in 1973, the year the personal computer, the Alto, was born at Xerox PARC.  Our machine was a DEC PDP-8, which boasted 8K 12-bit words of magnetic core memory and 32K words of fixed-head disk storage.  I programmed in assembly, often punching octal bootstraps directly into the front panel.  I designed and built my own computer out of discrete logic gates, 7400 series TTL (transistor-transistor logic), the first (and probably last) free-running (clockless) computer.  In a summer program at Brooklyn Polytechnic, I programmed perhaps the first artificial intelligence system to use the Hebbian idea that repeated use strengthens neural connections, an idea that would be used again a decade later for artificial neural networks.  I programmed and ran one of the world’s first computer dating applications, for our school.

In college at Princeton, as others were transferring out of engineering, I transferred in.  Thus I completed all requirements for both BA and BSE degrees, as well as all requirements for medical school.  In my junior year, I worked with a professor on an image recognition task: tracing the boundaries of characters for optical character recognition (OCR).  In my senior year, for my thesis I commuted to nearby Bell Laboratories to work with video coding pioneer Arun Netravali (who later rose to Bell Labs’ President).  My thesis was written in Bell Labs’ eqn|troff.  It was probably the first Princeton thesis typeset by computer.

After graduation in 1980, wanting to work on machine intelligence, I took a job at Telesensory Systems in Palo Alto, a startup by Stanford professor John Linvill, which made computerized devices for the handicapped.  I worked on a reading machine for the blind, doing both OCR and speech synthesis.  To solve the OCR problem, I invented decision trees using an entropy splitting criterion, which is now widely used in machine learning.  For speech synthesis, I implemented the first new prosody algorithm after Klatt’s original algorithm.  Unfortunately, it never superseded Klatt’s, which is still in use today (e.g., by Stephen Hawking).  I also worked on LPC compression and synthesis of speech.  Our recordings might still be heard announcing when it is safe to cross the street, and what floor the elevator is on.  While there I took classes on Statistical Inference broadcast by microwave from the Stanford Instructional TV Network, and even matriculated at Stanford to attend the final quarter of the class when it was offered only on campus.

To learn more about machine intelligence, I decided to go to graduate school.  I went to Berkeley, which unlike Stanford, offered me a graduate stipend.  I TA’d numerical analysis for William Kahan, who eventually won the Turing Award for his design of the IEEE floating point standard.  I did research for a cardiologist who monitored blood flow by floating patients on a huge air table.  I did my Master’s thesis on decision tree design, re-inventing Fano’s inequality in my thesis.  I guessed that the mathematical foundations of human intelligence (or at least memory) could be found in information theory, specifically in data compression, and more specifically in vector quantization (VQ), so I headed to Stanford for my PhD to study with Bob Gray, the father of VQ.  I was happy to find that my earlier matriculation to take one class at Stanford meant that I was already admitted into the graduate program there!

At Stanford, I developed entropy constrained VQ and pruned tree-structured VQ, both of which used my new Lagrangian rate-distortion optimization, mentioned earlier.  (Lagrangian rate-distortion optimization, or RDO, is a means of choosing the best among multiple encoding choices.  Over the years, it has allowed video compression algorithms to become complex, to take advantage of emerging computation.  Arguably all improvements in video coding in the last two decades have come from adding new encoding modes and using Lagrangian RDO to choose between them.  As such, Lagrangian RDO was probably my most valuable invention never patented.)  I generalized my pruned tree-structured codes and proposed many uses, including multiresolution graphics, scalable coding, and image coding, all of which are seen today.  As a graduate student I wrote three journal papers.  The first, in the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, was on associative memory; it was presented at the very first NIPS conference.  The second, in the same Transactions, was on pruned tree-structured VQ; it was nominated for Best Paper of the Transactions.  The third, in the Transactions on Signal Processing, was on entropy-constrained VQ; it won Young Author Best Paper in the Transactions for that year.  However, I wrote my thesis on a completely different piece of my PhD work — decision trees.  In the thesis I generalized decision trees to decision directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), which found their way into IBM’s speech recognition system (and Fred Jelinek’s book).  Decision DAGs have recently been rediscovered and are used to rival deep networks in computer vision.

After Stanford, I turned down an offer at Wisconsin (and other pending university offers) to return to Bell Labs, this time in Signal Processing research at Murray Hill.  I generalized speech recognition systems based on hidden Markov models to stochastic context free attribute grammars capable of recognizing images of complex text such as equations.  The technique used an integral pattern matcher, a precursor to the image features used in the Viola-Jones face detector as well as image features used in today’s Kinect and other image recognition systems.  After two years, I returned to California to work at Xerox PARC, where I worked with Gary Kopec and others to extend the approach to recognition of general documents, including music notation, chemical equations, or any layout grammatically describable.  This work eventually became the foundation of OCR systems both at Xerox and Google (thanks to other members of the team at PARC).  At PARC, I also began work on lossy universal data compression, and proved achievable performance bounds analogous to those for lossless universal codes, which are related to the minimum description length principle for statistical inference.  I got involved in MPEG, proposing, essentially, a universal coding scheme based on Kolmogorov’s idea of prefixing each coded bit stream with executable script for interpreting it.  Modeled after PostScript, the language used for communicating images to most printers in the world, my scheme would have achieved the Kolmogorov Complexity of every sequence and would have reduced if not eliminated the need for standards meetings in the future.  Unfortunately, eliminating their meetings was not something well appreciated by MPEG attendees.

In the fall of 1994, I taught a graduate-level class on data compression (EE378) at Stanford for one quarter, filling in for Bob Gray while he was on sabbatical. This gave me the opportunity to experience the other side of distance education, since I taught the class over the Stanford Instructional TV Network (SITN).  My intern at Xerox PARC, Navin Chaddha, was my TA.  In his own systems research, Navin was busy with two of his fellow grad students and his advisor, Anoop Gupta, trying to compress SITN video lectures for delivery over the Internet.  Towards the end of the course, Navin demonstrated to the class the power of real time video compression using Hierachical Table Lookup VQ, which Navin and I has been exploring at PARC.  Soon that effort was spun out of Stanford as VXtreme.  I eventually joined VXtreme to manage the compression team, and months later we delivered the first commercial video-on-demand over the Internet.  Stanford’s Instructional TV Network was our first customer.  The first use of Internet video was distance education!

I arrived at Microsoft in 1997 when VXtreme was acquired. From my previous MPEG work, I could see that MPEG-4 needed a streaming file format.  So I proposed to MPEG that they adopt the Microsoft format, ASF.  The MPEG Systems chair later told me that this was like waving red meat in front of lions.  I learned first-hand how decisions at MPEG are foremost business decisions, not technical decisions, as unbeknownst to me a consortium of anti-Microsoft forces (IBM, Oracle, Sun, Apple) maneuvered in secret and used questionable procedures to get Apple’s QuickTime approved over ASF as the “basis” for the new MP4 file format, without ever going through any technical presentation of the format.  So now you have some hint on how MPEG operates, and how the now-ubiquitous MP4 format came into being: I proposed the idea, but the solution that was chosen was based only on inter-corporation warfare.  Having basically been an academic all my life, I was stunned.  That experience kept me away from MPEG for a long time.

Fortunately there were more important things to do.  My work on progressive image coding led to work on scalable video coding, which by 2002 led to the inventions of multi bitrate coding and fast startup, the latter two of which are crucial parts of today’s streaming video experience, as I described above.  I also figured out how to perform rate-distortion optimized streaming, a key development in the academic field of multimedia networking, for which I won a best paper award from the Transactions on Multimedia.

By 2003, however, I was already heavily into peer-to-peer media delivery, having developed with colleagues a few peer-to-peer media delivery solutions pre-dating BitTorrent.  This led me to the invention, with Kamal Jain and Yunnan Wu, of random linear network coding for packet networks.  (A similar MIT invention was simultaneous, though we got the patent.) And a couple of years later, this led to the invention, by Yunnan Wu, Kamal Jain, S.-Y. Kung, and me, of wireless network coding.  Both random linear network coding and wireless network coding spawned large communities of researchers in information theory, networking, systems, communications, and signal processing.  We never filed a patent on wireless network coding because it was invented between Microsoft and Princeton, and ownership would have been awkward.  We decided to put it into the public domain.  A fun side-result of collaborating with Kamal was a joint paper with the mathematician László Lovász, which reduced my Erdős number to 2.

As a Research Manager from 2004 to 2011, I established two concentrations of work in my group.  The first, on error correction coding for data centers, now powers all of Microsoft’s data centers and has saved the company over a billion dollars in capital and operational expenditures on disks, computers, and electricity.  The second, on telepresence and immersive communication, has now arrived as Holoportation.  I also incubated a third area of concentration on audiovisual scene analysis, which has now become a significant and successful research effort in smart room technologies within Microsoft Research.  I like to think that I was a competent manager, but that my time would be better spent more directly in innovation.  In 2011 I stepped down from management to return to an individual contributor role.

Recent Work: Compression for Augmented Reality

Some background:  Beginning with a 2007 ThinkWeek memo to Bill Gates, and extending to numerous external publications and keynote talks, I have been arguing that the invention of the third generation of immersive communication is imminent, based on the convergence of the necessary constituent technologies.  The inventions of the first two generations of immersive communication – the telephone in 1876 and the television in 1926 – were each followed by the growth of huge industries, which changed the face of society forever.  Horizontals such as hardware device manufacturing (e.g., Western Electric, RCA, Zenith), content distribution (e.g., AT&T, ABC/CBS/NBC), and content production (e.g., tv and movie studios) all became huge industries in themselves, reshaping existing massive industries such as advertising in the process.  Even today we are seeing new huge businesses emerging based on voice and video technologies (e.g., mobile phone manufacturers, wireless carriers, Skype, Netflix) due to new distribution mechanisms (wireless and the Internet) with continuing massive societal impact.  Now, in 2016, with the advent of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) goggles to the market, and the recent demonstration of Holoportation, it can be argued that the third generation of immersive communication has arrived.  This third generation promises to have no less impact on society and business than the first two.  Another way to see AR and VR, which has been more popular with analysts, is as the “fourth major platform shift” after the PC, web, and mobile.  Regardless of how you look at it, this is a big deal.

With this prediction in mind, for the last decade I have been working with colleagues on the entire pipeline of immersive communication: capture devices, multi-device fusion and reconstruction, compression, transmission with cloud services, applications, and user perception.  Examples of this work, involving many collaborators, include the following: minimization of multipath interference in time-of-flight depth cameras; reconstruction of surface color and geometry from multiple color and depth cameras; compression of mesh and point cloud data; routing real time calls and placement of real time services in Internet-scale overlay networks; applications for interactive collaboration through large surfaces in immersive communication; and quantifying the level of immersion using the psychophysics of eye gaze and gesture direction perception.  Though each of these deserves explanation, lest this bio become more of a tome than it already is, let me concentrate here on explaining my contributions only in the area of data compression.

Some more background:  As it is emerging today, the focus of VR is on 360 degree video, for the following reasons.  VR replaces a user’s reality with a virtual reality, making it dangerous for the user to physically walk around, at least beyond a small area.  With the user generally constrained to a stationary position, most VR storytellers today avoid gratuitous virtual motion, in order to avoid motion sickness.  Moreover, current low-end (phone-based) VR devices such as Google Cardboard and Samsung Gear VR cannot detect head translations.  Hence the amount of motion parallax required by the scene representation is limited.  This allows most content to be captured by stationary 360 degree cameras.  Such content is relatively easy to compress, because it involves a simple mapping of the sphere or other enclosing surface onto a collection of rectangles, followed by ordinary video encoding.

In contrast, the focus of AR is on “volumetric” content, because AR augments a user’s reality by embedding objects in the user’s world, permitting the user to walk around and view the objects from all directions.  The representations of AR’s volumetric objects (which are captured “outside-in”) are different from the representations of VR’s panoramic scenes (which are captured “inside-out”).  While the latter can be well-represented by stereoscopic panoramic video, the former are better represented by dynamic meshes and point clouds.

Thus, I have been exploring the more interesting problem of compressing dynamic meshes and point clouds for AR.  Unlike video, dynamic meshes and point clouds are defined on irregular domains.  Unfortunately, tools in signal processing such as the DCT, which are central to video compression, cannot be used directly on such signals.  However, it turns out that the emerging area of graph signal processing (GSP) offers a workable abstraction, in which signals are defined on combinatorial graphs, and spectral graph theory can be used to define a graph Fourier transform (GFT), which can take the place of the DCT for signals defined on irregular domains.  Since 2013, I have been involved in extending and applying GSP to dynamic mesh and point cloud compression.  Publication highlights are as follows.

  • H. Q. Nguyen, P. A. Chou, and Y. Chen, “Compression of Human Body Sequences Using Graph Wavelet Filter Banks,” Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, May 2014. Best Student Paper Award (2nd place).
  • Cha Zhang, Dinei Florencio, and Philip Chou, “Graph Signal Processing – A Probabilistic Framework,” no. MSR-TR-2015-31, April 2015.
  • D. Thanou, P. A. Chou, and P. Frossard, “Graph-based motion estimation and compensation for dynamic 3D point cloud compression,” in Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), September 2015.
  • A. Anis, P. A. Chou, and A. Ortega, “Compression of dynamic 3D point clouds using subdivisional meshes and graph wavelet transforms,” Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), March 2016. Invited to special session on Signal Processing on Graphs.
  • P. A. Chou and R. L. de Queiroz, “Gaussian Process Transforms,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), September 2016. Invited to special session on Graph-Based Multi-Dimensional Image Data Compression.
  • D. Thanou, P. A. Chou, and P. Frossard, “Graph-based compression of dynamic 3D point cloud sequences,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 25, no. 4, April 2016.
  • P. A. Chou and R. L. de Queiroz, “Modeling Signals Embedded in a Euclidean Domain,” Graph Signal Processing (GSP) workshop, May 2016. Abstract only.
  • C. Loop, Q. Cai, S. Orts Escolano, and P.A. Chou, “Microsoft Voxelized Upper Bodies – A Voxelized Point Cloud Dataset,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 Joint WG11/WG1 (MPEG/JPEG) input document m38673/M72012, Geneva, May 2016.
  • P.A. Chou and R.L. de Queiroz, “Transform Coder for Point Cloud Attributes,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 input document m38674, Geneva, May 2016.
  • P.A. Chou and R.L. de Queiroz, “Rate-Distortion Optimized Coder for Dynamic Voxelized Point Clouds,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 input document m38675, Geneva, May 2016.
  • P. A. Chou, “Coding for Augmented and Virtual Reality,” Packet Video Workshop, Seattle, July 2016. Invited Plenary talk.
  • P. A. Chou, “Telepresence: From Virtual to Reality – A Reprise,” Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop, Montreal, Canada, September 2016. Invited Keynote talk.
  • R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Compression of 3D Point Clouds Using a Region-Adaptive Hierarchical Transform,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. To appear.
  • R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Motion-Compensated Compression of Dynamic Voxelized Point Clouds,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Submitted for possible publication.
  • R. L. de Queiroz and P. A. Chou, “Transform Coding for Point Clouds Using a Gaussian Process Model,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Submitted for possible publication.

In my view, coding for AR is at a stage analogous to video coding in 1980. As of yet, for AR there is no commonly agreed upon coding paradigm analogous to the 8×8 block-based motion-compensated DCT paradigm that emerged for video coding in the late 1980s. There are only a few groups around the world looking at the problem, and they are experimenting with algorithms. However, within a couple of years, paradigmatic elements will start to emerge, especially if common representations, datasets, and evaluation metrics can be agreed upon. Furthermore, I believe the representations for AR and VR will eventually merge.AR and VR are hot these days, for good reason. But currently all the fuss is about capture, sensor fusion, and display. Someday soon people will wake up and realize that compression and transmission — including random access, scalable coding, error resilient coding, and streaming — are critical capabilities. I want to be there before that realization dawns.

In fact, as a general rule, I want to have been to the future before most other people wake up to it.

CV

Education

  • Ph.D., Stanford University, Electrical Engineering, 1988.
  • M.S., University of California, Berkeley, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1983.
  • B.S.E., Princeton University, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1980.

Expertise

  • Compression, transmission, and recognition of dynamic 3D geometry, video, images, audio, speech, and documents.
  • Signal processing, data compression, information theory, pattern recognition, and data science.
  • Network communication and coding.

Experience

  • Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA. Principal Researcher, July 1998 – present.
  • Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA. Manager, Communication and Collaboration Systems Group, July 2004 – July 2011.
  • Chinese University of Hong Kong, Affiliate Professor, 2006 – present.
  • University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Affiliate Associate Professor, 1998-2009.
  • Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA. Software Design Engineer, September 1997 – June 1998.
  • VXtreme, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA. Compression Group Manager, January – September 1997.
  • Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Consulting Associate Professor, Spring 1995.
  • Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA. Member of Research Staff II, 1990-96.
  • AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ. Member Technical Staff, 1988-90.
  • Stanford University, Information Systems Lab, Stanford, CA. Research Assistant, 1986-88.
  • Hughes Aircraft Company, El Segundo, CA. Member Technical Staff, 1984-85.
  • Speech Plus, Inc., Mountain View, CA. Software Engineer, 1983-84.
  • University of California, Berkeley, CA. Teaching Assistant, 1981-83.
  • Telesensory Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA. Software Engineer, 1980-81.
  • Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ. Co-op Program, 1980.
  • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ. Programmer, 1979.
  • IBM, Dayton, NJ. Programmer, 1977-78.

Awards

  • IEEE Int’l Conf. Multimedia and Expo (ICME) Best Paper Award (2009)
  • IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Prize Paper Award (2007)
  • IEEE Int’l Conf. Multimedia and Expo (ICME) Best Paper Award (2002)
  • IEEE Signal Processing Society Paper Award (1993).
  • IBM Doctoral Fellowship (1987).
  • Hughes Doctoral Fellowship (1984).
  • Lockheed Leadership Fellowship (1983, declined).
  • Regent’s Fellowship (1981).

Honor Societies

  • Sigma Xi (since 1987).
  • Tau Beta Pi (since 1980).
  • Phi Beta Kappa (since 1980).

Professional Societies

  • IEEE Fellow (since 2003).
  • IEEE Senior Member (2000).
  • IEEE Communications Society (since 1997).
  • IEEE Information Theory Society (since 1984).
  • IEEE Signal Processing Society (since 1984).
  • IEEE Computer Society (since 1981).

Professional Activities

  • Vice-Chairman , Santa Clara Valley Chapter, Information Theory Society, 1992-1997.
  • Guest Editor, Special Issue on Recent Advances in Vector Quantization, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, February 1996.
  • Co-organizer and Chair, Special Session on Universal and Adaptive Coding, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, September 1996.
  • Associate Editor, Source Coding, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1998-2001.
  • Member, Image and Multidimensional Digital Signal Processing Technical Committee, IEEE Signal Processing Society, 1998-2004.  Chair of awards subcommittee, 2000-2003.
  • Member, Technical Program Committees: IEEE Signal Processing Society Workshop on Multidimensional Signal Processing (1998, 2001); IEEE Data Compression Conference (2000, 2001); IEEE Int’l Symp. on Information Theory (2001); IEEE Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (2000, 2001, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016); IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo. (2002, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016); IEEE Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (2002, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016); Packet Video Workshop (2002, 2003, 2004, 2007), NOSSDAV (2004), NetCod (2006, 2007), IEEE SPS Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011); IEEE ESPA (2011); IEEE Hot3D Workshop (2012).
  • Co-organizer and Co-chair, Special Session on Rate-Distortion Optimized Delivery of Realtime and Streaming Media, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Exhibition, Lausanne, August 2002.
  • Guest Editor, Special Issue on Streaming Media, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, April 2004.
  • Technical Chair, Workshop on Network Coding, Theory, and Applications, April 2005.
  • Special Sessions Chair, IEEE Int’l Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), April 2007.
  • Member, Multimedia Signal Processing Technical Committee, IEEE Signal Processing Society, 2007-present.  Chair of awards subcommittee, 2007-2008.  Vice-Chair 2009.  Chair 2010-2011.  Past Chair 2012.
  • Member, editorial board, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2007-2008.
  • Member, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Steering Committee, 2009-2011.
  • Member, Multimedia Technial Committee, IEEE Communications Society, 2009-present.
  • Publicity Chair, Packet Video Workshop, 2009.
  • Technical Co-Chair, Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop (MMSP), 2009.
  • Interim Chair, ICME Steering Committee, 2009.  Member 2010-2011.
  • Member, IEEE Signal Processing Society Fellow Evaluation Committee, 2009-2011.
  • Guest Editor, Special Issue on Immersive Communication, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, April 2011.
  • Member-at-Large, IEEE Signal Processing Society Board of Governors, 2012-2014.
  • Member, IEEE Computer Society Fellow Evaluation Committee, 2014-2015.
  • Awards Chair, Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), 2015.
  • Technical Program Co-Chair, Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 2016.
  • Technical Program Co-Chair, Int’l Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), 2017.
  • Reviewer for the National Science Foundation, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on Communications, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Proceedings of the IEEE, Electronics Letters, Signal Processing, Journal of Computational Graphics and Statistics, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, IEE Proc. On Communications, Speech, and Vision, DCC, ICASSP, ICIP, ICME, ISIT, MMSP, ESPA, Globecom, SSPR , ICPR , SIGGRAPH, NOSSDAV, PVW, UIST.

Theses Co-Supervised

  • Olivier Trémois, “Reconnaissance d’Equations,” Master’s Project, Ecole Nationale de Physique de Marseille, 1990. [Advisor: Prof. Prea]
  • Michelle Effros, “Universal and Adaptive Source Coding: Theory and Practice,” Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1994. [Advisor: Prof. R. M. Gray]
  • Jesse F. Hull, “Recognition of Mathematics Using a Two-Dimensional Trainable Context-Free Grammar,” Master’s Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996. [Advisor: M. D. Trott]

Theses Mentored (informal supervision)

  • Sanjeev Mehrotra, “Multiple Description Coding using Overcomplete Linear Expansions,” Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, May 2000. [Advisor: Prof. R. M. Gray]
  • Taku A. Tokuyasu, “Turbo Recognition: An Approach to Decoding Page Layout,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2001. [Advisor: R. A. Fateman]

Thesis Committees Served

  • Richard Vander Kam, “Lossy Data Compression Methods for Halftoned and Printed Images,” Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1995. [Advisor: Prof. R. M. Gray]
  • Agnieszka C. Miguel, “Image Compression using Overcomplete Wavelet Representations for Multiple Description Coding,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, 2001. [Advisor: Prof. E. A. Riskin]
  • Rui Zhang, “End-to-end Rate Distortion Analysis and Optimization for Robust Video Transmission over Lossy Networks,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2001. [Advisor: Prof. K. Rose]
  • Zhourong Miao, “Algorithms for Streaming, Caching and Storage of Digital Media,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California, 2002. [Advisor: A. Ortega]
  • Alexander E. Mohr, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, expected 2003. [Advisor: Prof. R. E. Ladner]
  • Cheng Huang, “Efficient and Effective Schemes for Streaming Media Delivery,” Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, June 2005. [Advisor: Prof. L. Xu]
  • Shaolei Ren, “Strategic Pricing and Resource Allocation: Framework and Applications,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 2012. [Advisor: Prof. M. Vander Schaar]
  • Ntorina Thanou, “Graph Signal Processing: Sparse Representations and Applications,” PhD. Thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, 2015. [Advisor: Prof. Pascal Frossard]

Last updated 1/30/2016

Personal

I am married to Sumi Kobayashi (also Princeton ’80).  We have two children: Andrew (a graduate of Stanford, now working at Amplitude in San Francisco), and Brendan (a graduate of Princeton, now working at Bloomberg in New York).

I enjoy running in the summer and snowboarding in the winter.  I have run the Pacific Northwest (now the Seattle Rock’n’Roll) Half Marathon annually since 2006.  In 2008, after training on Mauna Kea, Mount Fuji, and Blackcomb and Whistler Mountains, I climbed Mount Mt. Kilimanjaro (19,341 ft.) with my son Andrew.

In 2011, I rafted 225 miles on the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon with my son Brendan.

Last updated 1/31/2016